The interlinking of rivers involving inter basin
water transfer has canals, tunnels or water lifts, for water to flow from one
river basin to another and making use of excess water. In India rainfall
isdependent on the south-west and north-east monsoons or on the shallow
cyclonic depressions and disturbances and on violent local storms which form regions where cool
humid winds of the sea meet the dry winds from the land and occasionally reach cyclonic
dimension. Hence some areas are affected by the droughts while other areas
are affected by seasonal floods. There is a general perception that with
growing human population and rising standards of living, the available supplies
of fresh water on the planet are becoming insufficient to meet demand. It will be
scarce, expensive to develop and maintain and valuable in use.
Keywords: Interlinking, Rivers,
canals, drought, irrigation
Water is one of the principle elements which not
only governs life on earth but also influences economic, industrial and
agricultural growth of mankind. There is a general perception that with growing
human population and rising standards of living, the available supplies of
fresh water on the planet are becoming insufficient to meet the demand. India
has a monsoon climate. Except for a small coastal area in the South, almost the
entire rainfall occurs during three to four monsoon months. Thus cultivation
during non-monsoon months is irrigation dependent. A characteristic of the
monsoon climate is variability of rainfall from year to year. India has an
average of one in five below-normal rainfall years. India is basically an
agricultural country, and all its resources depend on agricultural output. In
India, 55% of agricultural output is from irrigated lands. Moreover, average
farm incomes have increased
from 80-100%as a result of irrigation, while yields
have doubled compared with those achieved under the former rain-fed conditions.
Water will no longer be cheap and plentiful. It will be scarce, expensive to
develop and maintain and valuable in use. At this point interlinking of Indian
rivers will open new avenues for developing new supplies. But we are at cross
roads, creating new supplies when we face problem leads to bad management of
resources. So there is also a need to develop strong policies for efficient use
of water resources.
The main aim
of present research work is to interlink the Godavari river of length 1465km and Manjira river of length
724km passing through Beed district and thus increasing water avaibility
and agricultural yield of the region.
The project aims to equitably distribute water and
to resolve water scarcity for drinking and irrigation purposes by linking
various water channels. Its specific objectives are to:
Divert water from water surplus areas to arid and semi-arid parts
of the district.
Conserve water by channelling it through canals ducts, drains,
nallahs, natural drains etc. into drought-prone areas.
Carry out qualitative and quantitative assessment of water resources.
Establish and evaluate long-term research on monitoring, measuring
and planning for sustainable development in the area under benefit.
Assess the socio-economic impact of the river connectivity
Scope of the
Irrigation by linking of the
rivers vast amount of land areas which does not have otherwise irrigated and
unusable for agriculture become fertile. Flood Prevention By creating network
of rivers flood and drought problem can be greatly avoided by taking excess
water to the areas that are dry. Generation of Electricity with new canals
built, feasibility of new dams to generate hydroelectric power becomes a
1.4 Organization Of Project
The project was developed with the goal of
completing the task within the limited time period of two to three years to
ensure that the surplus rainwater from the monsoon was used in time. The
project entails a combination of rain water conservation and utilisation of
flood water run-off to replenish natural and artificial water bodies through
natural drainage channels. . This project deals with the connection of the
Godavari River with Manjira River by constructing canals and transfers the
surplus water from Godavari to Manjira with gravitational flow.
To create the linkage architecture, the
administration first took the following steps to assess on the ground scenario:
A detailed field level survey (undertaken by the irrigation department)
to investigate water scarce areas and to study the efficiency of the
groundwater recharge structure.
Identification and assessment of existing infrastructure to minimise
construction of new canals.
An evaluation to understand the natural contours of the region that
could be exploited to divert water.
Discussion with beneficiaries to understand the needs of the local
A. More, 2014 studied on ‘Interlinking Of
Rivers’ And Concluded that,this river linking project in Maharashtra,
India, is based on innovative methods of linking of natural and artificial
water drainage for inter-basin and intra-basin water transfer. This is a unique technique of
rain water conservation; utilization of flood water run-off and replenishing
natural and artificial water bodies through natural and artificial water
drainage channels. The excess water in a river is utilized to recharge the
ground water bodies and dry wells in its command areas.
The project is designed for the optimum utilization of
rainfall-runoff for inter-basin and intra-basin water transfer through
innovative technologies of both surface water transfer and ground water
recharge. The principle of watershed management within the command area is used
not only for agriculture purposes, but also for drinking water and industrial
A. Amarasingh et.al,2015, Studied On ‘Interlinking Of Rivers’ And
Concluded that, Increasing reliance of
groundwater and declining area under surface irrigation are the prominent recent trends in Indian
irrigation. Given this changing face of irrigation, many issues in groundwater and surface irrigation require immediate
attention. Recharging groundwater is an immediate requirement for sustaining
the present groundwater economy and for distributing irrigation benefits to a
larger part of the population.
Empowering local institutions on watershed development programs,
combining several micro-watersheds within a radius of 400 m with
meso-watersheds for development, recharging
groundwater through millions of dug wells, converting small tanks to
percolation ponds, increasing groundwater irrigation tank commands, and
changing irrigation scheduling in canal commands to increase conjunctive water
use are some measures for sustaining groundwater irrigation. Water productivity
improvements could significantly
reduce the requirement
for additional water development.
Increasing crop yield by providing supplemental irrigation in major
rain-fed districts with
low consumptive water
use (below 325
mm), reducing the yield gap in many irrigated areas without
increasing the total consumptive water use (325-475 mm),
deficit irrigation to
provide deficit consumptive
water use in
irrigation districts with large
consumptive water use (more than 450 mm), and increasing multiple water uses in
water-abundant rain-fed areas are some strategies towards increasing water
productivity in agriculture.
Demand management strategies can reduce the widening gap between supply and needs. If implemented with stronger
policy backing, water pricing, formal and informal water markets, water rights and entitlement systems, energy-based water
regulations, water saving.
The river interlinking project in Maharashtra is
based on innovative methods of linking of natural and artificial water
resources. This is a unique technique of rain water conservation utilization of
flood water runoff and replenishing natural and artificial water bodies through
natural and artificial water drainage channels. The excess water in a river is
utilized to recharge the ground water bodies and dry wells in command areas.
The project is designed for the optimum utilization of rainfall-runoff.
3.2 Proposed Methods:
The methods used for the interlinking of rivers are Using canals:-
River linking project can be done by linking two or more rivers by
creating a network of manually created canals, and providing land areas that
otherwise does not have river water access and reducing the flow of water to
sea using this means. It is based on the assumptions that surplus water in some
rivers can be diverted to Deficit Rivers by creating a network of canals to
interconnect the rivers. In this project we are going to connect
the Godavari River with Manjira River by constructing canals and transfer the
surplus water from Godavari to Manjira with gravitational flow.
The list of data required for the study is as below:
Profile levelling: is a method of
surveying that has been carried out along the central line of a track of land
on which a linear engineering work is to be constructed/ laid. The operations
involved in determining the elevation of ground surface at small spatial
interval along a line.
Meteorological data: rainfall
River data: length, discharge, velocity,
Contour data for the selected route.
Drainage data obtained from Survey of
India Topographical map.
interlinking of our rivers to transfer the floodwater from the surplus rivers
to deficit areas is one of the most effective ways to increase the irrigation
potential, for increasing the food grain production, mitigate floodwaters and
reduce regional imbalances in the availability of water. Godavari River
originating from the Western Ghats are found to be surplus in water. If we
could build canals in the Godavari River and connect to Manjira River with less
water Imbalances could be removed significantly. The project will eliminate
drought conditions, transformed desert waste lands into agricultural productive
areas by bringing irrigation and vegetation. The project will miraculously
change the living conditions and the socio-economic conditions of the people
1 Sonali A. More (2014),
International Journal on Arts, Management and Humanities 3(2): 14-20(2014).
2 Anjali Verma and
Narendra Kumar (2015), Interlinking of rivers in India: Proposed Sharda-Yamuna
Link Department of Environmental Science.
3 Tushaar Shah, Upali A.
Amarasinghe and Peter G. McCornick (2008), India’s River Linking Project, The
State of the Debate.
4 Upali A. Amarasinghe and
Stefanos Xenarios (2009), Strategic Issues in Indian Irrigation: Overview of
5 Nidhi Pasi And Richard
Smardon (2016),InterLinking Of Rivers: A Solution For Water Crisis In India.
6 River linking project –
jalgaon, maharashtra, researched and documented by: oneword.net (one world
foundation India) feb2011.