According among others. In summary, there has been

According
to Onyango (2011) state that government has tried in providing solution to housing
problem in Kenya ranging from forced evictions and resettlements, upgrading
slums and informal settlement, enabling environment and city development
strategies but none of these strategies have been able to resolve the problem
and in most instances, have not benefited the intended group. Several
factors have been attributed to this impasse including; lack
of serviced land, high cost of finance, minimal government funding to housing
sector, high cost of building and construction, inappropriate building
technologies, inappropriate housing policy, stringent planning regulations and
standards, high cost of infrastructure, limited research on sustainable housing
and to unsatisfactory modes of housing delivery systems among others.

In
summary, there has been increased demand for sustainable housing in Kenya ,
particularly for low and middle income household  who constitute of 89% who demand for housing
in urban area .However, housing providers have been providing housing
particularly for upper-middle and top class who constitute of 21% who demand
for housing in the market because of various and varied factors. Much more need
to be done in addressing housing shortage in holistic way. As such this study
will go a long way in filling gaps left by previous studies who focused only on
affordability of housing and financing from the supply perspective.

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1.1  Statement of the problem

Housing
is a concept which consist of many elements together for betterment of quality
of life and prosperity of a Nation .Housing is critical in the sense that it
take into consideration of economic, social, cultural and environmental aspects.
But no country is yet to satisfy the delivery of sustainable housing to various
socio-economic groups that make up its populace. Both international and
national laws have made it clear that accessibility of sustainable housing is
fundamental right for every citizen.

The
annual demand for housing in urban Centre’s is 200,000 units and the current
annual production is 30,000 units both private and public sector. It is expected
that the number of units needed over the next 10 years will be 2.9 million..
It
is further estimated that by 2030, about 63% of Kenya’s population will be living
in urban areas. According to the Ministry of Housing and urban planning 80% of
the new houses built are for high-and upper middle-income people, while 83% of
the demand is coming from low-income families and 89% of the urban population
cannot afford a mortgage, generally this explain why low and middle income
groups have been left out in housing development and as a result slums and
informal settlement are increasingly day by day. In 2010, 50% of the urban
households had average monthly income below $375.

Sustainable
housing cooperatives historically has been, still even today is preferred
option for majority of low and middle income household for provision of
sustainable housing. Housing co-operative are stable due to their structure and
governance demonstrated by collective ownership, collective action and
participation. Housing co-operative majority of their target population are
drawn from informal and formal employment, slums and informal settlement, women
and small traders whose income cannot individually affordable  mortgage to acquire  a sustainable housing.

According
to Hass Property Index, state that the lowest price for home ownership in most
of cities in Kenya is KSH 2M. Additionally, The average price for an apartment
in Nairobi is Sh12.7 million, a semi-detached house Sh20.4 million and a
detached one Sh35.2 million..(Mwaniki, 2014). This amount is still completely
unaffordable to low-income populations given the current gross per capital
income of KES 5,848 per month (Noppen,2014).

Past
studies have been conducted in housing sector in Kenya including: – Mutisya
(2015) Ojwang’
(2015) Kung’u
(2013)  Nabutola (2004)
Ook
((2013) Kwamboka
(2013) Kinuthia
(2017) Amatete (2016) Kinyua (2013) among others. Though the
studies have discussed various factors that affect affordability of housing in
Kenya, but there is no study that has been done to establish the role of
housing co-operative in provision of sustainable housing to low and moderate
income household in Kenya .Also the study will look at the
determinants of sustainable housing from the demand and supply point of view
and in particular to the consumer and 
producer housing co-operatives Therefore the main objective of this
study will be to establish the key factors that will affect housing
co-operative in provision of sustainable housing to low and moderate income
household in Kenya.

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