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          Although this novel takes place in France, while the French Revolution was roaringn.  Dickens again points out how the aristocrates and government thtat are oppressive and cruell towards the poor working class.  The oppressors heap excessive taxes, laws that are unjust, and have complete “…disregard for the well-being of the poor.”(           )  Dickens writes that while the poor rebel and create a revolution, revoultion will lead the poor to tyranny, like what they were trying to stop from the upper classes.  No matter which group, aristocrats of the poor people, anr in the position of poowere, they will be tempted and ustally do use that power to oppres the oter group. Dickens compares what is happening in France is happening in England. In France the population explodes into revolution. In England there are people trying to bring the problems of the poor to the light of the aristocrats.(Kalil)

.           Oone character in this novel, Dombey and Son, is Alice,who is abandoned by her lover, and becomes a prostitiee and stealing to stay alive.  Wjem writing this novel, Dombey and son, Charles has used the themes of “prostitutuin and fallen women” (Barkley).  At that time, Charles was very concerned with these women.  Dickens, in his propomtin of helping them, became involved with strting a home for those and wanted redemption and and to get out of their situations. He met Angela Burdett-Couttes, whoalso wante to find a way to release them fro that type of live.  They established a home,named Urania College. This ‘college’was a home the fallen women could go to for help.  The women would spend about twelve months to receive an “…education, nutritious food, and rest,…” then ” they would immigrate to Australia to begin new lives.” Committing to this project, Charles showed that he was committed to help woman leave “…prostitution as a behavior to which women might be pushed by social circumstances and poverty, and his belief in individuals redeeming themselves….”.(Barkley)

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The loss of all of his wealth, position and business status, Dombey begins livingin a couple of rooms in a house that he owns but is soon to be sold. He wakes up and realizes family is more imortant that money and social standing.   He begins to think about Florence and the fact that he now he wants her the most to be with him, in spite of his caruelty to her for years. While thinking of Florecnce, hre rarlizes that Florence is the on unchanged thing in his life, and is redeemed because of his meaness and rejection of her. It turns out that Dombey is one of the luckiest people in the world because Florence returns to him with her son, named Paul, and they are reunited. 

            Another theme in some of Dickens novels is father and child relaationships. In those days, fathers wanted sons because they wanted to pass their business on to the son.  The female child is often overlooked and abandond in the family.  Dombey finally has a son, but the little boy isscikley and eventually dies.  Florence, his daughter, is blamed for all the ills that befall the family. Eventually Florence runs away from hone. Florence marrys Walter Gay, who was an employee of Mr Dombeys. She and Walter have tawo children, ____________.   She was and still is “…steadfastly good, loving, and patient…”. (Barkley) Dombey accepts the in order t have a position in society and power, he has to have money.

I alaso is about life versus death.  Nell and Mary Hogarth are young and healthy, then die in their youth. When Dicken’s wrote aboaut Nell’s death, it was as sorrowful to him, as when Mary Hogarth died in ‘real’ life.

Little Nell’s, who is a sweet, kind, nnocent and gentle 14year old girl, grandfather, hwo she lives with, owns a curiosity shop which sells, unusal items, rare items, Things of a nature that are novel, strange and interesting, the reason for  the name of the Dickens’ story, The Old Curiosity Shop..  Nell;s grandfataher has two compulsions and they are gambling to keep Nell from the arms of poverty, and the need to keep Nell safe and away from her drunken brother.  In trying to keep Nell from poverty, her grandfather gambles every bit of money he has and of course looses it all. Then he starts to borrow money rashely from the evil Quilp, who hopes to one day marry Nell.(Mazzeno). Finally, Grandfather and Nell loose the curiosity shop to Quilp and have no place to live.  They   live in poverty on the streeets and depend on begging as Nell’s health decines. Dickens is describing little Nell as though she is his sister-in-law, Mary Hogarth, they both die in their teenage years.  This is a story is about good, Nell, versus evil, Quilp.  It also touches upon old, grandfather and the curiosioty shop, and young, Nell.

Scrooge, in A Christmas Carol, is stingy, ornery and with a cranky personality.  Scrooge is greedy and lives the mentality that “business is life” is the only thing worth doing. Many of the upperclass at that time were of the mind, lik Scrooge that the poor are lazy and expect everything to be given to the.  He believes tahat all the charity the poor, working class people need are the workhouses and debtors prison.  Typical of a lot of emplouers in that era, they expect their employees to work, work, work, m whether it is a holiday or not, even on Christmas Day. Because the employees are in the working class and need the money they havae to do whaat the employer sas.  Scrooge represents the aristocratacy that are greedy, greedy, and greedy.  The employee, Bob Cratchit is the symbol of the underclass.  The moral of A Christmas Carol, is a “Christian Allegory of redemption” (Sparknnotes)  for Scrooge.

Near the end of the Industrial Revolution, new opportunities for the poorest classes to climb the social ladder become available.  Dickens writes about this boy’s life as he clmbs this social ladder, which Dickens did when he became a well known author.  Great Expectations is about the poorer class of orphans, criminals and wealthy. The novel says very little about the ‘hereditary aristocracy’. (Ross)  The main character in the novel Great Expectations, is   Philip Pirrip or Pip. This story is about, yet another, orphan living with a kinkly blacksmith who loves and is kind to Pip. His wife, Pip’s sister who is mean and unkind to Pip.  Pip educates himself, learns manners, and dresses in the finest clothes so that he appears to be in the aristocratic class. Pip finally learns that “the source of true gentility is spiritual nobility… (Ross)”. Money nor manners nor education make a gentleman.   This parallels Dickens wanting to be a gentleman and educataed, since he was very young.

            One of the themes in Hard Times, is that the people of England should become like machines, instead of people with excitable and displaying feelings openly.  Dickens thought people and their individualism aren’t to be programmed by math or logic.  He felt that any emotions and behaviors would be gone in a system that expects acting for their self-interest.  Like Mr. Gradgrind, who chooses to teach his children to value fact vs fancy.  Mr Bounderby, uses his own self-interest to treat the workers as objects with no emotions so he can exploit them. In light of this, Mr Bounderby’s workers and Louisa and Tom, Mr Gradgrind’s children have become dull, unaffected by any pleasures, feelings, and joy in there lives.  They have lost hope.  Charles Dickens is sensitivity, humor, joy in his life. He looked for the good in all people. 

            At nineteen, Nicholas Nickleby’s, who is used to a comfortable life financially, father dies, leaving Nicholas, his mother is modeled after charles’ mother, Elizabeth, who is sort of comical, confused and nervous.  They decide to go to London and ask Uncle Ralph, who is a crook, for some assisstenence. Ralph  gets Nicholas a job, as an assisstent, at a boarding school. At the ‘school’, the boys are half starved, abused and beataen. Wackford Speers’, the operator of the school, whips and beats a boy named Smike. Nicholas, who is a decent and kind person,  takes the whip from Speers and turns it on him.  He and Smike run away to London.  Charles writes about the injustice of the treatmen of children in the boarding schools.

Oliver Twist is a story aboaut a young boy who is orphaned when his mother dies right after he is born. From birth to nine years old, Oliver lives in a place for orphans. At nine he is sent to a workhouse and becomes and undertaker apprentice.  He is mistreated at every place he is sent to.  He runs away to London. He meets a boy, named Jack Dawkins, who is amember of a gang of thieves. The leader of the pack is Bob Fagin.  They both try to teach Oliver how to steal like a pickpocket. Fagin and Dawkins force Oliver to break into a house that happens to be his aunt that he didn’t know about. Oliver who is good is able to get away from the thieving gang of robbers.  Because of his aunts wealth, Oliver goes from poverty to a well respected life, just as Charles Dickens did.  Although Charles wealth camef from his ability to make money fromwriting.

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