Chapter 1: The Problem and its BackgroundBackground of the Study With regards to pavements, driveways, and other comparative paths upon which travel occurs, most are likely left by having to choose between using asphalt or cement. These two types of materials create similar surfaces yet there are evident differences that should be considered before making a final decision on which to utilize. These include aesthetics, cost, climate factors, maintenance, and restrictions. Braen (2017) expressed that both materials have turned out to be great options. Either way, one will probably have the two options to choose from. Concrete and asphalt must have well compacted bases of gravel before application. They take time to ‘cure’ before they can be driven on. In addition, both are made from the same general material – stone and sand. However, the distinction comes from their components. As Margaret Hungerford says, “beauty is in the eye of the beholder”, this is true for driveways too. Asphalt driveways usually produce a pleasant look and concept of the driveway being an extension of the road. Concrete can likewise be stamped, etched, or engraved into different designs. All these choices make a plenty of alternatives when designing a driveway.For those who live in areas that have either cold temperatures or very warm summers, climate can be a vital consideration. It is important to talk to a reputable contractor about the impacts the local climate will have on both asphalt and concrete. There are also definite differences when considering cost and maintenance. Finally, there might be a need to check with any local construction standards to check if there are any specifications. The purpose of the study is for the researchers to be able to suggest as to which of the two materials is better to use for road constructions.Statement of the Problem This study aims to determine as to which of the materials, asphalt or concrete, is more efficient to use for road construction. Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:1. What are the components of these materials? 1.1 Asphalt 1.2 Concrete2. To what specific temperatures can these materials withstand deformation? 2.1 Asphalt 2.2 Concrete3. How much do these materials cost? 3.1 Asphalt 3.2 Concrete4. What are the advantages of these materials with regards to its cost over a long period of time? 4.1 Asphalt 4.2 Concrete5. How and how often are roads made out of these materials maintained to be in good condition? 5.1 Asphalt5.2 Concrete6. Which of the materials is better to use for road constructions?Scope and Delimitation This study is a descriptive research. The independent variables of the study are the asphalt and concrete. The dependent variables are the advantages, disadvantages, and cost-effectiveness of the use of the materials for roads in tropical countries, specifically the Philippines. In this comparative study, the researchers focused on the qualities of asphalt and concrete as a material for road construction with the hope that either of the materials will help in nationwide road improvement. The research is to be conducted in the researchers’ country of origin – the Philippines. Although, there are numerous materials that can be used in road construction, this study will only focus on asphalt and concrete as they are the most commonly used.Significance of the Study The outcome of this study aims to benefit the following:To the professionalsThis study would prove beneficial for contractors and civil engineers as to what material is best suited for road construction in the long run. Aside from comparing quality, this study would act as a guide to which of the two is less costly and more accessible over a long period of time.To the Philippine governmentThis study would also prove to be beneficial to the Philippine government. This study could lead to a statistical report on cost-effectiveness and a nationwide improvement on road construction. The Philippine government could use the data provided by this study to improve the road quality which in turn would decongest traffic. The government could potentially save millions of pesos in construction materials without degrading the quality of the road’s infrastruct.To society This study aims to benefit the society by influencing the construction of safer, much stronger, much smoother, much aesthetically pleasing roads to travel by. It may also influence the choice of private landowners as to which material would best suit their needs, as well as homeowners as they build their perfect driveway.To future researchersThis study could be beneficial to future researchers. The data that this research provides could be used as a related literature for their studies. Additionaly, future researchers can use this study as a basis for their own research.