CHAPTER those who did not use the module,

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 

A module is defined as a set of learning opportunities
organized around a well-defined topic which contains the elements of
instruction, specific objectives, teaching learning activities and evaluation.
The following studies envisages the efficacy of learning modules (Padmapriya,
2015 cited from APEID, 1976).

A module is a short unit of instruction dealing with a
single conceptual unit of subject matter. It is a self-contained and
independent unit of instruction with the primary focus on a few well defined
objectives (Padmapriya, 2015 cited from Russell 1974)

A module is a set
of learning opportunities systematically organized around a
well-defined topic which contains the elements of
instruction. Modules. These modules are self-contained unit or
package of study materials for use by individual, most useful for
adult learners, graduate and undergraduate levels (Neil Doregios, 2014)

Self-learning modules are learning activities designed for
participants to do independently when they are unable to attend individual or
group education sessions are self-contained unit or package of study material
for use by individual, most useful for adult learners, graduate, and
undergraduate levels. SLMs are self-contained and independent unit of
instruction with a primary focus on a few well defined objectives (Mary Grace
R. Heramil and Allen Angelo, 2016)

According to Firoz Qureshi (2016), Self-Learning Module is
any learning resource that can be used by a learner without the presence of the
material teacher, this does not preclude learning from other learners.

 

According to Dr. Kandi Jaya Sree (2004) cited from Siddiqi
that students who used the module achieved statistically higher than those who
did not use the module, and taught by the teacher in a conventional way.

Greager and Murray (1991) offered Modules to the teacher.
They found that the Modules helped the students to learn as well as provided
better chances to the students to interact with the teacher because this self-learning
material reduced the routine instruction time.

Mak & Georges (2007) carried out a research on the
benefits of self?paced learning modules for teaching quantitative
methods in environmental science. It was a multiple?indicator
evaluation of an innovative approach, using self?paced learning modules
accompanying computerized exercises as an adjunct to teaching quantitative
concepts and skills to environmental science students at university. The
evaluation data, based on a pre?unit and a post?unit
questionnaire survey completed by 38 students, showed high levels of student’s
satisfaction with the unit as a whole and the self?paced
workbooks in particular. Students also indicated a clear preference for 23
learning from self?paced workbooks compared to learning from textbooks.
Some students applied the quantitative skills acquired to other academic units
or took the initiative to learn to use additional statistical procedures (not
covered in the unit) for academic purposes.

Khalil, Nelson and Kibble (2010) Self-Learning Modules
improved understanding and facilitated learning basic science concepts. SLMs
were reported to allow learner control, to help in preparation for subsequent
in-class discussion and to improve understanding and retention.

Garillos (2012) conducted a study on Development and
Validation of Instructional Module in Biology for Second Year High School
Students. It was found that there was a significant increase in the post-test
results of the students when the instructional material was introduced in the
class.

 

Aggabao (2002) created Self Instructional Modules on
Selected Topics in Basic Mathematics for Instructional use at the Teachers?
College in Isabela State University. After making use of the experimental
method, it was concluded that 22 the students as well as teachers have a
positive attitude towards the use of self-instructional material as a mode of
instruction in Basic Mathematics.

Rastogi (2003) developed Self Instructional Material on
Educational Statistics for B. Ed. students. In this experimental research, a
comparison was seen between two strategies as Traditional Classroom Teaching
and Self-Instructional Material.  The
statistical analysis revealed that a significant change in level of knowledge
regarding Educational Statistics was obtained in both the groups. Also,
learning in both the groups was enhanced to a significant level and there was
more retention through Self Instructional Material strategy. This indicated
that Self Instructional Material strategy was more effective than Traditional
Classroom Teaching strategy.

Dhamija (2014) carried out research on the “Effectiveness of
Self-Learning Modules on the Achievement of Elementary School Students in the
Acquisition of Concepts in English Grammar”. It was found that Self-Learning
Modules proved effective for enhancing the acquisition of concepts in English
Grammar among students of VIII class. Another finding of the study revealed
that students retained the concepts in English Grammar in a better way when
they were taught through Self-Learning Modules in comparison to conventional
teaching.

Ahuja (2002) studied the Effect of Self – Learning Modules
on Achievement in Environmental Education in relation to Altruism and Emotional
Intelligence. It was found that the students taught through Self- Learning
Modules (SLM) strategy gained more environmental education concepts than those
taught through Conventional Method. Thus SLM strategy proved to be superior to
Conventional Method for teaching environmental education concepts. Altruism
accounts significantly for di fferential achievement in environmental education
than those with low altruism. Interaction between teaching strategies and
varying levels of altruism found to be significant in producing differential
achievement scores. Students with high altruism gained more concepts in
environmental education than those with low altruism under SLM strategy.

Arora & Singh (2005) did a study on Development and
Evaluation on Self-Learning Modules to enhance the Traditional Physiology Class
at CMC Ludhiana. The results indicated that Self-Learning Modules were an
effective method of studying and reinforcing learning. Comparison with other
teaching methods indicated that the students would prefer Self Learning Modules
as an additional method of learning but not a replacement for lectures and
text-books. Students recommended that SLM experiment should continue and
suggested SLM library for self-study.

Puri (2009) conducted a study on Effect of Self-Learning
Modules on Environmental Awareness in Elementary School Students Belonging to
Different Socio-Economic Status and School Systems. It was found that
Self-Learning Modules proved effective when compared to Conventional teaching
in Private, Gurukul and Govt. schools.

Dutt (1998) carried out a research to find out the Effect of
Self Learning Modules on Achievement of Senior Secondary Students in Relation
to their Sex and Place of Residence. It was found that male students got
significantly higher mean post achievement test scores than female students
through Self-Learning Modules. Students belonging to both rural and urban
places of residence achieved almost identical mean post achievement scores.

According to Kryspin (1974) self-instructional module can be
used as an effective teaching learning device in educational psychology course.

Windell (1975) from his study with self-instructional
teacher training module revealed that the modules are effective to produce
reliable changes in trainee’s knowledge and skill in the use of techniques for
determining the reading level of the exceptional children.

According to the study conducted by Lampe (1984) were he developed
and evaluated five self-instructional modules to provide basic knowledge on the
identification and correction of reading difficulties. The modules were used
for diagnostic prescriptive reading instruction, word recognition skills, the
informal assessment of reading difficulties and the correction of reading
difficulties. Results from the evaluation showed that the modules were suitable
for the intended purpose.

Dishner (1975) conducted an experimental study to
investigate the effectiveness of the modules, by comparing students who were
taught by proficiency modules, with students taught by traditional approach
which shows that students taught by the proficiency module performed significantly
better than the students taught by the conventional method.

Nath (1998) developed and validated self-instructional
package for Secondary School Biology teachers for their in-service learning.
The objectives of the study were to develop Self-Instructional Material (SIM)
in a Package with reference to the necessary content to fill up the gaps in the
updated knowledge of secondary school Biology teachers in their in-service
learning and to validate the developed package by ascertaining its effectiveness.
It was found that 37 percent of teachers had achieved marks in the range of
61-80, 44 percent of teachers achieved more than 80 and 19 percentage secured
marks in the range of 54-60.  None of
them had secured below 50 marks.  81
percent of teachers achieved more than 60 percent marks. The mean percentage
score in the achievement test was 67

Chopra (2002) developed a Self-Instructional Module to
Enhance Communication Skills of College Principals. The objectives of study
were to develop a self-instructional module in „communication? for college
principals. Self-instructional module in „communication? was administered on
the college principals for self-study and to evaluate the usefulness of the
module through self-appraisal and feedback by college principals. It was found
that the „communication module? has definitely proved useful to college
principals to enhance their communication skills and competence to optimally
perform at work. The respondents had found the sequencing and flow of the
module logical and smooth and could work through the module within the time
frame allotted by researcher of eight to ten weeks.

Shetty (2004) made a Self-Instructional Module for the
Secondary School Principals on Staff Development. The objectives of study were
to develop instructional material on self – development for secondary school
principals and to evaluate the effectiveness of the instructional material on
staff development for secondary school principals. It was found that the
modules helped the Principals to enhance their abilities of organizational
management. These helped the principals to have better and effective communication,
wherever required technology was used. They were active listeners, effective
negotiators and were able to conduct meetings effectively after learning the
various techniques of communication from the modules. 

 

Using module are effective because these help to
individualize instruction by providing materials (teacher free) activities for
one or more learners simultaneously, permitting students to work at their own
rate of learning, providing immediate feedback to the learner and the educator,
using intrinsic interest materials (which, by definitions are relevant
materials), and enhance learners’ chances of successful achievement (Jenrry W.
Robinson, Jr. and William B. Crittenden, 1972).

 

 Module motivate the
students to regulate and manage their own learning styles, and thereby to
create an interest and attitude towards science among the students as they are
free to learn at their own pace which boosts their confidence in their own learning
(Padmapriya, 2015)