Energy different combinations and interactions of four distinct


Energy efficiency
is referred to the use minimal energy to create equal and improved levels of
productivity to the consumer of energy in a more economically efficient and
less capitally demanding manner. It incorporates the use of lesser energy at any
time, including peak hours. 1

Energy efficiency
in Smart grids includes efforts to make efforts to supply affordable, reliable,
secure, and clean electric power. 1 Demand response, discussed earlier is
becoming a valuable tool in for smart grids to achieve better efficiency especially
in utility and regional resource plans.

The capability and potential for energy efficiency and demand response
at a customer’s facility are
derived from a combination and interaction of four distinct elements: the
building infrastructure, building
electro-mechanical systems, appliances, and customer behaviour. New technology and systems integration are key
building blocks to enable greater coordination of efficiency and demand response (CPUC, 2008)

The expansive
capabilities and potential for energy efficiency for customer facility (demand
side) are propagated from different combinations and interactions of four
distinct elements: the infrastructure of
the building, electro-mechanical
systems present, the list of appliances and customer usage of the appliances.

The achievement
of better efficiency in the residential market is a three-step process which encompasses
demand side to facilitate in the waste minimalization and better output utilization:

Control Switches:
Traditional switches are manually operated and use
direct load control to control the switching dynamics inside a system. Retrofitting
the current switches with control operated switches adds greater accessibility
and a new demand response capacity to the system.

Replacement transition devices:
Replacing a customer’s existing appliance or control
with one that has more utility in operation as a controller for energy efficiency,
PCTs (smart thermostats) are an example of a replacement transition device that
when accurately configured to match occupants’ daily schedules, provide efficiency
and conservation benefits through ensuring that the heating and cooling systems
operate only as much as is needed to maintain the desired temperature. They reduce
excess uptime and provide response capabilities by allowing a customer to
adjust the temperature setting a few degrees to curtail load.
Some Devices now include functionality to act as a bridge device or repeater
and pass price, reliability, and event signals on to other appliances and loads.
This allows the devices to act
like small-scale, limited-purpose versions of a building automation system (BAS), controlling individual
components to reduce wastage and maximize efficiency.

Embedded controls:
Appliance vendors have begun incorporating demand
response functional and engineering logic developed for smart thermostats into
other major residential appliances. For example, General Electric (GE) 2 and
Whirlpool 3 have announced their intentions to provide their most efficient
washing machines, dryers, dishwashers, refrigerators, water heaters, range
tops, and other selected appliances with integrated electronics which will
provide customers with the capability for Energy Efficiency to let them monitor
and respond automatically to price, reliability, and other demand response
event signals.

Combinations of
the above control technologies with adequate customer information about energy costs
and usage is expected to enable customers to adopt towards energy-efficient
behaviors and invest in more energy-efficient end-use devices while participating
in price or event based demand response programs.

Apart from Household
efficiency of smart grids, the commercial and institutional market has immense use
of smart grids to achieve greater efficiency and ultimately lower costs. Automation
acts as the key to commercial and industrial sector energy efficiency and
demand response by incorporating monitoring, communications, and control

Many mediums to large
commercial and institutional buildings have installed enabling technology that
has the potential capability to support both energy efficiency and demand
response (see requirements of ASHRAE 90.1 Energy Code). Facility managers
typically use EMCS to manage and control their HVAC and lighting loads. EMCS
can provide efficiency and reduce energy costs by monitoring equipment and
enabling ongoing device control, turning equipment on or off at appropriate
times or modulating equipment operation