Famine is defined as the condition of
the lack of chronic food consumption (Lenhart 1989; Ngongi 1999). In 2000, FAD
estimated that there were 840 million people suffering from hunger and
malnutrition, of which 799 million were in developing countries, 30 million in
transition countries (from developed to advanced) and II million in
industrialized countries. Between 1990-92 and 1998-2000 the number of
starvation and malnutrition suffered only 2.5 million per year. Cause a certain
developing country the amount is not reduced but increases. Hunger and
malnutrition kill many children and adults.
Every day an estimated 24 thousand souls died, including
every seven seconds died one child (FAD 2003). In the long term, chronic hunger
adversely affects the health of the population and causes a high level of
public health spending. Chronic hunger can lead to:
high rates of infant mortality;
susceptible to disease;
3) disruption of growth and
Chronic hunger causes children to lack the protein and
micronutrients they need for optimal growth. In the world an estimated 226
million children grow shorter than they should. Consequently, stunted children
are positively related to the IQ leverage (Olson 1999); and 4, inhibits
Nearly 67 million malnourished children are
caused by chronic hunger and are unable to complete their school well. This
will lead to a lack of skills and productivity that ultimately impede a
country’s economic growth (FAD 2004). Through the International Conference on
Nutrition 1992 to the World Food Summit 1996, Indonesia is one of the countries
that commit to the world to eliminate hunger and malnutrition. Even the
commitment was reaffirmed at the World Food Summit Five years later (WFS: fyl)
to halve starvation by 2015 and set out in the Millennium Development Goal.
The decline in the number of hunger in the world is a form
of success from the Millennium Development Goal, which is realized and resumed
in SDGs. Hunger is a deficiency of chronic food intake that usually occurs in
children from infancy to toddlers (1-5 years of age). When a person eats
something he eats it should be with intake of four healthy five perfect,
especially intake for children. Hunger is very easy to attack children under
the age of 10 years, because under 10 years of age is in need of a maximum
nutritional intake to support growth. The main characteristic of starvation is
the stomach of the sufferer is swollen and large, abdominal swelling is the
first indication that is very easily seen by the naked eye.
Famine is rife in the African continent because it is a
continent with dry soil, very high temperatures and no madas supporting the
country for farming and gardening activities. Not only difficult to plant by
plants, but also people in the African continent is difficult to get clean
water. Hunger is still happening in Indonesia, especially in East Nusa Tenggara
(NTT) province, but jumblahnya only about 23% which is quite small compared
with the number of hunger on the African Continent.
That Causes Hunger
Hunger is present in 17 Goals of SDGs, because hunger
is a big problem, which is difficult to study and eradicate until the world’s
hunger reaches 0%. The successful development of a nation depends on the
quality of human resources (HR) of a nation. Hunger or malnutrition can damage
the quality of human resources. Therefore, starvation is a predator that we
must destroy for the sake of the world’s progress. Hunger is a very difficult
problem to overcome, due to the human limitations of today. Factors that cause
hunger in general are:
poverty factor contributes a lot in the occurrence of hunger, where poverty is
a factor driving the inability of a person to buy food or food worth consuming.
Poverty is the parent problem and hunger is a ramification of the problem. Actually,
we have to reduce the most important problem, that is poverty, after that we
are easy to eradicate the starving branch. Because of low income they are
unable to meet the nutritional needs of their children. When a child does not
get good nutrition and balance for growth, then the child is very susceptible
to malnutrition or malnutrition. If a child has severe malnutrition then the
child should be treated intensively by a doctor. Because poverty is again the
reason for the inability to have their child checked into a doctor, the deaths
caused by the snails can attack their baby at any time.
The state of nature.
is a God-given angle to meet our needs and where we spawn and live. Countries
with high hunger rates are countries with few natural resources. Where the
country does not have fertile soil, springs are hard to find, and very high
temperatures. These factors are causing the difficulty of plants to live and
thrive. With these conditions farming, gardening, and also difficult to do.
Therefore, these countries are difficult to get adequate food.
Warfare or Weapon Ceasefire.
factor is a supporting factor of two main factors above. In African countries,
there is still widespread battles and ceasefires, making it difficult for
Africans to import feed ingredients into their countries and it is difficult
for donors to provide assistance to the country. And this greatly affects
African people having trouble doing anything to save them from starvation. The
African government must act in this way, so that the African people can be
Lack of knowledge owned.
everyone in the World gets educational facilities of good quality. Many people
in the World do not know about hunger or malnutrition or what is called
“Mal Nutrition”. This ignorance causes hunger or malnutrition to
occur. Pregnant women or mothers who have children, should understand about
good food to be consumed by their children.
to Prevent Hunger and Realize “World Without Hunger”
Nutrition Problems in Indonesia Until now
nutritional problems in Indonesia are still a problem. Especially related to
malnutrition and malnutrition both in infants and adults. In adults,
malnutrition and malnutrition are present in pregnant and lactating women as
well as those with low incomes. These nutritional deficiencies are associated
calories and protein,
lack of vitamins,
endemic goiter, and
nutritional anemia. (MOH, 1990)
At this time, most or 50% of Indonesia’s
population can be said not sick but also unhealthy, commonly called
malnutrition (Atmarita, 2004). The incidence of malnutrition is often escaped
from regular sight or observation, but slowly affects the high maternal
mortality rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and low life
that can be done to membrantas hunger are:
It is a family effort to improve the nutrition of all family members.
Implemented by family / community with cadres as community mobilizers and
officers of various sectors.
c) It is
part of the everyday family and is also an integral part of the national
development and people’s welfare.
Oprasional is a series of activities that support each other to implement the
transfer of simple technology to the community. The form of activities
according to MOH (1990) can be as follows:
Community nutrition instructor, in this case aims to make the process of
changing understanding, attitude, and behavior more healthy about the
usefulness and utilization of nutritional services available in the community.
Nutrition services through posyan-du, this activity to decrease the number of
protein and calorie deficiency, blindness due to lack of vitamin A, and anmeia
for pregnant women.
Utilization of the garden yard, this activity in the form of counseling
limited aid to the cultivation of garden plants.
The content of nutrients in food according to Rusli Lutan
et al. (2000), which shall contain:
proteins, namely the need for energy,
fat, for energy sources for the process of catabolism,
Diseases and Nutrition There are several diseases
directly related to this malnutrition, namely:
vitamin deficiency (avitaminosis),
nutritional anemia (MOH, 1990).
In addition to counseling through kaderasasi
done. Another thing that can be done to overcome hunger is with innovations
created to create plants or food that can live and thrive in dry and hot regions
like the land in Africa. Providing assistance from countries with large natural
resources, to assist countries with few natural resources.