Furthermore, the skylight (Reid, 2002). The difference between

Furthermore, the Parliament Building in Canberra, designed by American architect Romaldo Giurgola is a movement of an Australian version of Modernism to the capital city of Australia, reflects to the Griffin’s original intention which is to be located below the top of the Camp Hill and make the national monument to be served as a site (Vale, 2008). The design from Giurgola is located into the Camp Hill instead of situated on top of the hill which is a very different intention compare to the Capitol in Washington, DC. This design allow visitors and citizens to walk on top of the government and legislature, giving them the opportunities of a clear and broad view of the capital city as well as giving us a sense of government is under the citizens (Minkenberg, 2014). In addition, the building itself is crowned by monumental size of steel flagpole instead of other monumentalized element such as dome. This type of monumentality compare to those that mentioned before, the 262 feet high building did not consider as a monumental structure establish on the landscape but the high rising flagpole is believed as the landmark on the site. This is not only because of the Parliament Building submerged under the grass and trees, but the massive four legged stainless steel mast that reflect the skylight (Reid, 2002). The difference between the Australian Parliament Building and other parliament building in Western capital city is the Australian Parliament Building is difficult to see from the outside. Compare to those buildings in Washington, Ottawa and Brazil mentioned before, there is no possibilities to see the building entirely. The building present itself to the citizens only the part of the exterior, with the columned and spacious front and the flagpole on top (Vale, 2008). Looking from the outside, the two parliament houses are not all clear as they are covered by the slopes with grass on top. For the interior, the arrangement of the building and the rooms are based on the bicameral style of the parliament building in Washington, DC as well as in Ottawa. The Senate chambers and the House of Representative are located on each flank of the central area which is similar the symmetrical style of the parliament building in Washington, DC, and Ottawa (Minkenberg, 2014). In addition, the seating arrangement follow the original Westminster style (Manow, 2008). However, the idea of lifting the circulation of the public to higher level which separate from the congressman has faced massive criticism for the building regarding to the asserted betrayal of the democratic principle of openness and transparency (Vale, 2008). 

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