Human Gross National Income (GNI). You can also

Human geography can be defined as ‘The branch of geography
dealing with how human activity affects or is influenced by the earth’s
surface.'(Oxford Dictionary, 2017) At this moment in time there are many human
issues and events are happening all around the world for example , rapid
population growth as well as globalisation and mass migration .Events like this
need to be studied so we can comprehend the world around us. Moreover, if we
understand it we can move forward in reducing these issues around the ever
changing world. This is why it is a distinctive subject compared to physical geography
as it study’s the behaviours, events and lives of people. This is different to physical
geography which is studying landscapes and formations. There is no other subject
allows a summary of the spatial effects of human behaviour and interaction.

Human Geography can be observed at many stages, from local to international and
has practical applications in strategic planning.

 

Development is a contested term; it can be a goal but also a
process. Development geography focuses on how quality of life and wealth of
individuals varies around the world. 
This allows us to identify problems in communities and therefore work to
improve the living quality of the people worst affected. This makes human
geography unique as it positively identifies areas which are in need of
support, they do this using economic measurement tools like Gross National Profit
(GNP) and Gross National Income (GNI). You can also use human indicators to
measure development such as life expectancy, infant mortality and literacy
rate. One of the main actors in development is the World Bank, they have to
main focus, firstly to end extreme poverty and secondly promoting shared
prosperity.  The World Bank was set up in
1940s due to the Bretton Woods conference which was aimed to maintain stability
and develop world trade. This is distinctive as there are very little large
scale organisations dedicated to providing finance to LEDCS to improve economic
activity, because the World Bank is so large it can access a larger group of
people benefiting them permanently. Being able to measure wealth and quality of
life allows us to subsequently split the world using GNI and GNP per
person.  The Brent line divides the world
into two categories More Economically Developed (MEDC) in the north and the
Less Economically Developed (LEDC) in the south. However, this is out of date
as counties have developed largely from 1980 such as China which has seen exponential
growth in the past 20 years. If you know which areas are less economically
developed then you can address and focus on those areas more than MEDCs and subsequently
allows us to prepare for the future. Another way to measure development could
be through Gross National Happiness, this is being done in Bhutan. This makes
human geography extremely unique as there is no other happiness test to work
out development. This is an index which the collective happiness in any specific
nation. It has nine factors including physiological well-being and good
governance.

 

There are two main theory’s fist is the modernisation
theory, this is the process of becoming more modern this is largely infrastructure
focused. It says that that countries go through five interconnected stages of development,
which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high
levels of mass consumption. However this large scale growth can cause serious
negative externalities such as environment problems, pollution and deforestation.

This is best presented in Rostows five stages of growth. This is unique as it
clearly displays an accurate timeline of countries developments.  However, the model presumes all countries
start with the same fundamentals “Several development decades have not measured
up to expectations, especially in Africa and parts of South America’ (Pieterse.J
2010), plus the model is based on European countries, it doesn’t include the
developing world.

The second theory is postcolonial theory this is an academic control
that analyses, enlightens, and reacts to the cultural legacy of colonialism and
imperialism. Post colonialism is about the human consequences of jurisdiction
and economic corruption of a native people and their assets. Rostows five
stages is important because it allows us to identify trends in developing
allowing us to prepare for the future and giving us a greater understanding of
our country.

 

 

 

 

 

 

(https://developmenthinking.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/rostows.jpg)

 

 

Urban geography is the study of urban spaces and urban ways
of being. “Urban geography seeks to explain the distribution of towns and
cities and the socio-spatial similarities and contrasts that exist between and
within them’ (Pacione 2009: 3) In urban geography there are two main approaches,
firstly the study of systems in the city (intermetropolitan) this considers the
relationship among a group of cities. Secondly study of the city as a system
(intrametropolitan) this highlights internal arrangements of humans, activates
and institutions. The study of urban cities has shown there has been an exponential
rise in the amount of people moving to urban areas and away from rural areas. This
increase in density of people in a small city area comes with serious
overpopulation issues. The study of human geography allows us to predict issues
like this and it allows us to prepare and try and rectify the problem. As more
people want to move to urban areas the demand increases, as a result of this
rents and prices of accommodation and housing increase. This can lead to gentrification;
this is the transformation of poor urban neighbourhoods into more affluent
neighbourhoods. As the rents increase the original residents are forced to move
away. An example of this is seen in London, Shoreditch in East London. Shoreditch
is known as a creative unique area in London full of artists and designers. However,
as it is so close to the financial district it is becoming more upscale and
financial based, forcing residents out of their homes creating them unto offices.

This lead to rioting by locals and the “Cereal killer café” was vandalized.

The way we experience cities is unique for everyone, some
people usually experience others view it differently. ‘we find alternative maps
and views of the city, and can connect a range of senses to urban life and to
an unconventional conception of policies'(Cloke.P Crang.P Goodwin.M.2005). Urban
geography can benefit us it can give us a better appreciation of the economics
of urban cities and this allows us to identify the structure involved in local,
national, and international financial growth in an a world where globalization
is increasingly important.

 

 It can provide us with a framework for
conceptualizing urbanism in conjunction with an appreciation of history and the
relationships among art, culture, and society. urban geography can help us
understand, analyze, and interpret the landscapes and communities of cities and
metropolitan areas around the world. In fact, urban geography is arguably one
of the most important subdisciplines within geography, and especially within
human geography.

 

 

 

 

‘Leisure is … best seen as time over
which an individual exercises choice and in which that individual undertakes
activities in a free, voluntary way.’ (C. Michael Hall and Page.S 2014) Free
time when you are not in work, education or carrying out necessary domestic behaviours
and compulsory activities, for example sleeping and eating. There are three
basic ways of thinking about leisure. Firstly, as (non-work) time, this means
you are relating leisure to work. It is a specific measure of time that you are
free from other obligations such as work. However, you can ‘side hustle’ when
you enjoy a activity so you do it in your free time for economic benefit. This brings
me onto the next form of leisure which is as an activity which are specific
activities which an individual chose to do in their free time. These can be beneficial
such as going to the gym or playing football this improves heath. However, you
could be taking drugs or drinking which reduces your health. Thirdly there is leisure
as an experience, this is the idea of choice. Leisure is something we chose to
do during which we can make a choice in how to spend it, its self-determined. However,
no leisure experience is ever really free from communal, environmental or
resource constraints. This is unique as leisure is always changing as we are
having more holidays and more leisure time than we use to, plus the types of activates
we do have change for example 30 years ago for leisure you would read a book, nowadays
people watch TV or play video games.  There
is also more opportunity for leisure activates because of the increase in availability
of sports clubs and attractions. Moreover, we are more connected to leisure due
to online and transport links so individuals