In this paper writer provides an

overview to Quantum computation issues like quantum registers, quantum gates

and quantum algorithms and presents the ideas, references and research

guidelines on how Quantum computation can be used to deal with some Artificial

intelligence problems like search and pattern matching as soon as

quantum computers become extensively available. The Quantum Computation is scientific

field that studies how the quantum behavior of subatomic particles can be used

to perform computation and large scale information processing. Superposition

and entanglement are unique quantum phenomena used in the quantum domain that

provides an efficient way to perform certain kinds of computations than the

classical algorithmic methods. In the Quantum Computation information is

stored in quantum registers these registers are composed of series of quantum bits.

Quantum Computation defines a set of operators known as quantum gates these

gates operate on quantum registers performing simple qubit range computations.

In this research paper writer

main focus is on the benefits Quantum Computation has to provide in the area of

Artificial Intelligence e.g. quantum game theory, quantum evolutionary

programming etc. The quantum analog of a bit is known as quantum bit or

qubit. Its physical implementation can be the energy state of an electron

in an atom the polarization of a photon or any other bi-state quantum

system. When a qubit is measured its state is always found in one of

two different states stated as |0> and |1>. Quantum systems are

able to simultaneously occupy different quantum states known as a superposition

of states. A quantum register can be in a superposition of two or more states

the qubits of the quantum register remain in superposition until they are

measured at the time of measurement the state of the register collapses to one

of its basis states randomly according to the probability assigned to that state. It

is not essential to measure every single qubit of a quantum register. In other

words they are linked together in a way that each of the qubits loses its

individuality. When the quantum systems are in superposition or entangled

states they are said to be in coherent state this is a fragile condition which

can be easily disturbed by interaction with the environment this disturbance is

known as decoherence.

Based on quantum registers computation

machines can be devised. Regardless to the computation of machines reduced to

basic operations to some qubits of a quantum register and this is what quantum

gates do and they are basic computation component of quantum computing.

Different number of quantum gates can be defined each of the gates is expressed

as a matrix so that the application of a quantum gate on the contents of a

quantum register is expressed as a matrix multiplication. The writer also gives

the overview on different quantum computing algorithms named as Parallel Computation, Grover’s Algorithm,

Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT), and Shor’s

Algorithm.

The first contribution of Quantum computing offers

to artificial intelligence is the production of truly random numbers, but the

random search methods in quantum computation is a different approach as compared

to classical computation the writer also gives an overview on classical random

walk and is also mentioned that combinations of quantum random walks with

Grover’s algorithm have managed to confront efficiently some real world

problems like database element comparison and dense graph search. Artificial

intelligence deals with many problems for classical algorithmic approaches i.e.

NP-hard problems like scheduling, search etc. Many artificial intelligence

techniques have been developed to cope with the NP complete nature of these

problems. Since Quantum Computation can reduce time complexity to polynomial

range it provides an efficient way to address these problems. It is obvious

that many problems in search, planning, scheduling, game playing and other

analogous fields can utilize the parallel processing of a quantum registers

contents and reduce their processing times by several orders of magnitude.

Speech, Language processing, Game theory and decision making have also been

addressed by Quantum Computation.

This paper presents the basics of Quantum

Computation to readers familiar with Artificial Intelligence but there are many

issues like the question may arise is when the human behaviors are model this

may lead to many questions like

whether the human brain performs some kind of quantum computation or not a

question that has been used to argue against hard Artificial intelligence in

the past. The quantum computers are sensitive to interaction with the

surroundings any interaction can leads to collapse of the state this

phenomena is called decoherence it’s very difficult to deal with it without

getting entangled with environment, The hardware for quantum registers is still

in infancy due to the obstacle of decoherence, the large number of qubits is

hard to maintain the coherence. If the error is occurred the error correction

schemes are used the assumption in it is that only one qubit is in the error

but this method would not work if we have more than on qubit error. Many

problems are occurring due to the super position and entanglements and state

transitions. Several problems associated with the implementation of quantum

computers and we conclude that we currently do not possess technical solutions

related to the fundamental tasks of quantum gate design, state preparation, and

error correction. There are many problems in implementation the main problem of

implementation is result of quantum computation being an analog process. It use unitary transformations to solve real

problems that involves rotations as in factorization it’s an attractive

mathematical idea but there remain basic engineering obstacles in the

implementation of this idea. There are many problems and issues in quantum

computation but with the passage of time they will resolve.