In Quantum Computation defines a set of operators

In this paper writer provides an
overview to Quantum computation issues like quantum registers, quantum gates
and quantum algorithms and presents the ideas, references and research
guidelines on how Quantum computation can be used to deal with some Artificial
intelligence problems like search and pattern matching as soon as
quantum computers become extensively available. The Quantum Computation is scientific
field that studies how the quantum behavior of subatomic particles can be used
to perform computation and large scale information processing. Superposition
and entanglement are unique quantum phenomena used in the quantum domain that
provides an efficient way to perform certain kinds of computations than the
classical algorithmic methods. In the Quantum Computation information is
stored in quantum registers these registers are composed of series of quantum bits.
Quantum Computation defines a set of operators known as quantum gates these
gates operate on quantum registers performing simple qubit range computations.


In this research paper writer
main focus is on the benefits Quantum Computation has to provide in the area of
Artificial Intelligence e.g. quantum game theory, quantum evolutionary
programming etc. The quantum analog of a bit is known as quantum bit or
qubit. Its physical implementation can be the energy state of an electron
in an atom the polarization of a photon or any other bi-state quantum
system. When a qubit is measured its state is always found in one of
two different states stated as |0> and |1>. Quantum systems are
able to simultaneously occupy different quantum states known as a superposition
of states. A quantum register can be in a superposition of two or more states
the qubits of the quantum register remain in superposition until they are
measured at the time of measurement the state of the register collapses to one
of its basis states randomly according to the probability assigned to that state. It
is not essential to measure every single qubit of a quantum register. In other
words they are linked together in a way that each of the qubits loses its
individuality. When the quantum systems are in superposition or entangled
states they are said to be in coherent state this is a fragile condition which
can be easily disturbed by interaction with the environment this disturbance is
known as decoherence.

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Based on quantum registers computation
machines can be devised. Regardless to the computation of machines reduced to
basic operations to some qubits of a quantum register and this is what quantum
gates do and they are basic computation component of quantum computing.
Different number of quantum gates can be defined each of the gates is expressed
as a matrix so that the application of a quantum gate on the contents of a
quantum register is expressed as a matrix multiplication. The writer also gives
the overview on different quantum computing algorithms named as Parallel Computation, Grover’s Algorithm,
Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT), and Shor’s


The first contribution of Quantum computing offers
to artificial intelligence is the production of truly random numbers, but the
random search methods in quantum computation is a different approach as compared
to classical computation the writer also gives an overview on classical random
walk and is also mentioned that combinations of quantum random walks with
Grover’s algorithm have managed to confront efficiently some real world
problems like database element comparison and dense graph search. Artificial
intelligence deals with many problems for classical algorithmic approaches i.e.
NP-hard problems like scheduling, search etc. Many artificial intelligence
techniques have been developed to cope with the NP complete nature of these
problems. Since Quantum Computation can reduce time complexity to polynomial
range it provides an efficient way to address these problems. It is obvious
that many problems in search, planning, scheduling, game playing and other
analogous fields can utilize the parallel processing of a quantum registers
contents and reduce their processing times by several orders of magnitude.
Speech, Language processing, Game theory and decision making have also been
addressed by Quantum Computation.


This paper presents the basics of Quantum
Computation to readers familiar with Artificial Intelligence but there are many
issues like the question may arise is when the human behaviors are model this
may lead to many questions like
whether the human brain performs some kind of quantum computation or not a
question that has been used to argue against hard Artificial intelligence in
the past. The quantum computers are sensitive to interaction with the
surroundings any interaction can leads to collapse of the state this
phenomena is called decoherence it’s very difficult to deal with it without
getting entangled with environment, The hardware for quantum registers is still
in infancy due to the obstacle of decoherence, the large number of qubits is
hard to maintain the coherence. If the error is occurred the error correction
schemes are used the assumption in it is that only one qubit is in the error
but this method would not work if we have more than on qubit error. Many
problems are occurring due to the super position and entanglements and state
transitions. Several problems associated with the implementation of quantum
computers and we conclude that we currently do not possess technical solutions
related to the fundamental tasks of quantum gate design, state preparation, and
error correction. There are many problems in implementation the main problem of
implementation is result of quantum computation being an analog process.  It use unitary transformations to solve real
problems that involves rotations as in factorization it’s an attractive
mathematical idea but there remain basic engineering obstacles in the
implementation of this idea. There are many problems and issues in quantum
computation but with the passage of time they will resolve.


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