INTRODUCTION: – There is lot of research on demand and supply
of teachers in Australia. The Council of Deans of education and academic and
private researchers also contribute in this. From an international perspective,
major papers by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) and the United Nations Education and Science Organisation (UNESCO) have
recently been published which include the Victorian Auditor- Generals report on
supply and demand of teachers Victoria and Vinson and Ramsey reports on related
topics in New South Wales. It is very difficult to collect the data on demand
and supply of teachers in Australia and also globally. There are different
number of agencies are involved in this paper work including education
institutions, government agencies and external education bodies which make
OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND FACTORS: – Following diagram showed the process
of analysis of demand and supply of teachers.
Figure1 Process for
forecasting teacher supply and demand
Ø ANALYSIS OF SUPPLY FACTORS: – There are some key findings that have
impact the supply of teachers which are given below-
were 120,123 registered teachers in Victoria in 2015, which is decreased by 1%
of Victorian School leavers applied for an ITE courses as their first
preference in 2014.
teachers are employed in a Government teaching workforce in 2015 and 2541 are
employed as graduates’ teachers.
Ø ANALYSIS OF DEMAND FACTORS: -Following are some key findings that
impact the demand of teachers-
of the Victorian Government teaching workforce was on extend leave in 2015.
were 6596 teaching services vacancies available in 2015.
of Victorian Government workforce was employed on a full-time basis in 2015.
sector, there were 576,008 (63%) government enrolments, 207,186 (23%) Catholic
enrolments and 131,965 (14%)
MAJOR DETERMINANTS WHICH ARE RESPONSIBLE
THE DEMAND OF
Ø The Ageing of the Teacher Workforce: – The Victorian Auditor General
reported that 45% of the State Government teaching work force would
progressively reach retirement age over the next ten- year period. This audit found that the Victorian teacher
labour market is likely to be in shortage over profession.
Teachers eligible to retire
(aged over 55), 2008 – 2012
AGE AT 2001
YEAR AGED 55
NUMBER OF TEACHERS
% OF 2001 TEACHER WORKFORCE
Ø Increase in Student Enrolments: – Many OECD countries including
Australia are facing increase in enrolments of students which occurs due to
expected increase in school age population of 15-19 years old (see chart1).
Australia is expecting a small increase in school age population of 15-19 years
old which will only slightly add the pressure on teacher shortage.
Chart 1 Expected changes in the school-age population from
2000 to 2010
STUDENTS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL: PROJECTED BY
STATE AND TERRITORY TO 2025
Ø Lack of Teachers in Key Learning Areas: – A recent
Australian report on this issue reports that there are low frequencies of
teacher education course completions with specialisations in senior physics (4
per cent), senior chemistry (6 per cent), senior mathematics (7 per cent),
secondary information technology (4 per cent and secondary LOTE subjects (8 per
cent)22. These findings were confirmed
by Cameron et al in the recent audit of
the teacher labour market in Victoria.
DETERMINANTS WHICH SHOW THE SUPPLY OF TEACHERS
Ø Registered teachers in Australia: – There are 120,123 persons who are registered
as a teacher in 2015 which is increased by 1% from last year 2014. Of the total
registered teachers in 2015, 99,278(83%) held full registration and 15,630(13%)
held provisional registration in 2015. As of 31st March 2016,
125,970 people are registered as a teacher. There is a graph given below which
shows the registered teachers.
v BELOW PICTURE SHOWS THE REGISTERED TEACHERS IN DIFFERENT
v VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT GRADUATES TEACHERS: -In 2015, 2179(86%) of Victorian government graduates’ teachers were
employed on a full-time basis and 362(14%) were employed on a part-time basis.
RECRUITMENT ONLINE (ROL)
APPLICATIONS: – It
is the recruitment system adopted by the Victorian Department of Education
& Training to administer all teaching and educational support vacancies and
applications at school. In 2015, 181,690 applications were received covering
6,596 teacher and leadership open vacancies listed in ROL.
ACTIONS RECOMMENDED TO THE KEY
· POLICY CHALLENGES- Major challenge
for education providers need to attract teachers either new graduates with
teaching qualification and retaining teachers. R
1. Improved remuneration (24.6 per cent);
2. Increased resources/reduced workload (23.3 per cent);
3. Improved employment conditions other than remuneration (19.1 per
4. Improved professional standing in the community (12.7 per cent);
5. Reduced class sizes (9.4 per cent)
6.Improved student behaviour (5.6 per cent);
· FINANCIAL INCENTIVES: – Offering
scholarships to final year Education students is a common strategy employed by
most States and Territories. The terms
and conditions of these vary, but most provide for guaranteed employment for
two years following graduation – often in areas of greatest need – e.g.
particular subject areas or geographic areas.
CONCLUSION: – It is concluded that demand of
teachers is currently strong and trending upwards and it is also believed that
it will be remain high for next-10 years. On the other side, supply has
outstripped demand, particularly for generalist primary teachers. Supply has
also increased over the last-4 years. It would helpful to undertake a more
depth analysis of population growth, in order to identify locations where
teachers’ shortage is likely to occur.
Secondary Principals Association (ASPA)
(1999) Teachers: Supply and Demand in
Australian Public Schools policy paper (APSA)
J W (2001) Teacher Work Force Planning (Victoria:
Education Union (2001) A National Teacher
Shortage: A solution from the Australian Education Union
B C & Villegas A M (2001) Absence
Unexcused: Ending Teacher Shortages in High Need Areas: Evaluating the Pathways
to Teaching Careers Program (The Urban Institute)
for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2014). Education at a Glance
2014: OECD Indicators, OECD, Paris.