Language language ability can be accorded specific-locations in

Language
is
the most important tool
of communication.It
is a
system
of communication
consisting of sounds,
words, and grammar,
or the system
of communication
used by people
in aparticular
country
or type
of work
.
(Cambridge
dictionary).The
human brain is divided into two hemispheres, the right and the left.
The most important for the language is the left where the front is
related to the speech, while the back for understanding. Linguistic
functions in the brain are involved in speaking and
listening.Also,sounds that are related with language are perceived
better from by the right ear.Neurolinguists
work
on the
relation between
language and the brain.Areas
that are important for the language in the brain are Brocas and
Wernicks areas.Motor
cortex is actually a
path
between the Brocas and Wernicks area , that generally controls
movements of the muscles.Brocas
area is
the front
part of the left hemisphere
of the brain with functions that are linked to the ability of speech
production and grammar.It is located nearby the part of motor cortex
that controls the articulatory muscles.Wernicks
area which
is also in the left hemisphere temporal lobe
is linked to the undrestanding of written and spoken language, and
its a part of celebral cortex.Specific
aspects of language ability can be accorded specific-locations in the
brain.Acording to Franz Joseph Gall this is the
localization view , where in Wernicks area words have been heard and
comprehended and then Brocas area is the productive part.For
the articulation of the language that is processing in the brain,
motor cortex is responded.Lateralization
refers to the localization of function to one hemisphere of the
brain. If
the brain is affected from an injure or a damage then probably
linguistic impairments will be found. One
of them is Aphasia that is defined either in Brocas and Wernicks
areas.

Generally,
Aphasia is
an language impairment that leads to difficulties of understanding
and producing language.It is also the neurological definition of any
language impairment.This disorder can be caused by a trauma or a
damage such as stroke that is the most common.Having
a patient that suffers from aphasia it is very difficult to
communicate due to the limited ability of producing speech and
putting words in order.Brocas
aphasia which is named from Pierre
Paul
Brocas
an France scientist
that in 1861 he was the first who found a relation between a some
disorders with this type of aphasia to localized brain damage.It
is also known as non-fluent or expressive aphasia.Those
who suffer from Brocas aphasia their
speaking would be fluently also
they
will have difficulties at produssing grammar sentences and repeating
what has been said by others. Their
speech will be limited and simplified although
they may be able to read by not to write easily.This
doesnt mean that they aren’t as much intelligent as they were
before. Some
causes can be stroke , brain tumor and infection in the
brain.Treatment
at Brocas aphasia could be working with a language-speaking
pathologist but also it can be
effective finding a support group or
another type of social setting were will meet people who suffer from
the same disorder.

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On
the other hand Wernickes aphasia or
fluent aphasia patients
have difficulties with
language comprehesion and proccesing spoken words more than those who
have brokas aphasia.
They
also articulate sentences appropriately but with limited correctness
of the words that they use or
thy made up words without sense.This type of aphasia causes
difficulty at speaking in coherent sentences or understanding others
speech.Its
important to refer that wernickes area of brain controls human
language and is located also near the area that we store our personal
dictionaries. Patients
can understand better the visual materials than written or spoken
words and have severely ability of reading and writing.One potential
cause can be stroke as in the Brocas aphasia , because it impairs
blood flow to thebrain that may not reach Wernickes area but it can
kill brain cells that results this type of aphasia. Head trauma as
hemorrhage
or skull fracture is can also cause aphasia.MRI
or
CT scan can be helpful for the diagnose. With medical intervention
this patients can possibly help to regain the
language abilities that were diminished.

Language
can
also have some break downs that lead to other impairments such as
autism.Is
a complex of neurodevelopmental disorders that tends to set
socializing difficult.Having autism doesn’t mean that this person
can not live his daily life as the others but some of them may need
substitutional support. Boys are more likely to this disorder and
according to the latest research of centres
for disease control and prevention 1 in 68 child is diagnosed with
autism.Some
signs of autism are limited verbal abilities , having problem to talk
about their feelings and understand the others feelings.Many patients
have problem with the repetition
of unusual movements and behaviors or they may be obsessive with some
objects or their parts.Patients of autism have higher risk to be
epileptic than the others.Symptoms are not always obvious

some
of them can be an
abnormally intense , inflexible adherence to specific routines or
rituals. Scientists believe that both genes and environment play
important role to this disorder.They
also suggest that autism can be a result of disruptions in normal
brain growth very early in development or some defects in genes that
control the brain development. For many children symptoms are
improved during their development and according to their behavioral
treatment .Educational and behavioural interventions and medications
can treat this disorder.

Down
syndrome is also an impairment that is caused by a gene problem
before the birth of a children.Some characteristics of those children
that are obvious from the begging is the flat form of their face and
the short.Suddenly, they have also intellectual diasbility but this
varies from person to person. Many
children with Down syndrome are also born with heart,
intestine, ear, or breathing
problems.
These health conditions often lead to other problems, such as airway
(respiratory) infections or hearing
loss.
But most of these problems can be treated.It
can be diagnosed during the pregnancy with some tests that doctor
does like screening tests or diagnostic tests.Down
syndrome
is
caused by abnormal cell division in early development of
a child.There are more than 50 features of Down
syndrome.
But not every person with Down syndrome has all the same features or
health problems. Treatment for Down syndrome focuses on making sure
that your child has regular medical check ups, helping your child
develop, watching for early signs of health problems, and finding
support. With treatment and support, you can help your child live a
happy, healthy life.

In
conclusion,we’
ve talked about linguistic impairments and syndromes that
unfortunately are shown more frequently in our
days.It
is important for educators and parents to be aware of these
linguistic disorders,
so it will be easier to diagnose in time and to cure immediately.
As
we saw Brocas and Wernickes aphasia are localized in the left
hemisphere of the brain were language is developet too.Havng language
impairments not only affects our speech but also our life and
routine. Rendering
its treatment necessary not only for their communication but also for
their socializing. Down
syndrome and autism are more related with gene so that is why they
can be diagnosed from the birth ore from the begging of children’s
life.Most
significant is when parents or teachers observe some symptoms of a
disorder they must talk about it with a specialist and don t be
offended if a teacher tells them that their child might have a
problem.This
problems can affect their children’s life in every aspect for ever.

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