LFTMO4 (30%) c) To what extent do you

LFTMO4 ASSIGNMENT TWO

 

2.  Word Classes

a) What are the tests to determine whether a word in
English is a noun, verb, adjective or adverb? Remember to refer to the
literature in answering the question. (20%)

 

b) For each of these four word classes, give one
example of your own and show how it fits each of the tests you mentioned in
section a). (30%)

 

c) To what extent do you think students should be
taught how to do these tests? Give a detailed answer, critically reflecting on
what you have read and explaining how you might incorporate the whole idea into
classroom activities. (50%)

Section a)

In the oxford dictionary, grammar is defined
as: “The whole system and structure of a language or of languages in general,
usually taken as consisting of syntax and morphology (including inflections)
and sometimes also phonology and semantics”. Knowing the part of speech of a word
(noun, adjective, verb, preposition, etc.) is not always easy for L2 learners
studying English.   Some languages are very different from English,
and the students have to learn what “noun”, “verb”, “adjective” and “adverb”
means and their grammatical syntax.

According to (Geoffrey Leech,
 Margaret Deuchar and Robert Hoogenraad,2006),
 there are three criterion used to define
the open classes of Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and Adverbs that can be placed respectively
in the following order according to their importance: Function, Form and
meaning.

Nouns

1-      Function:
 In order to test whether a word is a
noun, one must check if the word comes in the beginning of a noun phrase and
the possibility of it being preceded by a definite article.  

 

2-    
Form:  To test the noun for its form

 

a-      Most nouns have
characteristic suffixes such as:

 ‘-ist’,  example: florist

-ism’,  example:– Optimism

, ‘-ity’,  example: unity

‘-hood’, example:
Parenthood

‘-tion’,
example: intention   /?n?ten·??n/

‘-ence’, example:
reference     /?ref·?r·?ns/

‘-ment’,
example: movement    /?mu?v·m?nt/

 

b-      Most words in
their singular form when changed  into
the plural form we add:

‘S’, ‘es’,  /s/, /z/ or /iz/, for
example respectively:

Orange – Oranges

tomato –  tomatoes

 

or they change their form such as the case of irregular nouns :

Child – Children

Foot- Feet

Tooth – Teeth

Mouse – Mice

 

3-    
Meaning

When we deal
with nouns, we usually mention physical things such as: People (doctor),
Objects (table), Places (street), substances (silver), etc. these nouns are
called: concrete nouns. However, we also have abstract nouns such as :
activities, emotions, ideas, procedures, etc.

According to
(Geoffrey Leech,  Margaret Deuchar and Robert Hoogenraad,2006),  affiliated words in this category of part of
speech, the noun, don’t all act in the same fashion. In relation to form,
function and meaning, there are relevant sub-categories as follows:

a-    
Count/ Mass Nouns 

Example:
(desk, pen, glass, idea) which are refere to as countable nouns.

b-   
Proper/ Common Nouns

Proper NOUNS
:  names of people, places, films, books
..which usually start with capital letter. Example: Europe, Mr. Smith

Common
nouns: they categorize thing into types..

 

c-    
Collective Nouns

Generally speaking collective
nouns are countable, however, even in their singular form to refer to groups of
: people, animals or things.

Example: family, class,
group, team  

Verbs

 

 

1-     
Function

Verbs are the main components of the verb phrase (Leech, 2006). They
can stand alone as predicators or they can follow other verbs. Example: The
dog was barking

One orange has
been cut.

According to (Leech, 20016). It is recommended to “look for the
verb” or verbs first when starting an analysis, because the predicator is the principal
component of a clause.

 

2-     
Form

a-     
The most
important forms are inflections: According to (Leech, 2006 P54 ), verbs have up
to five inflections:

 

Vo

Vs

Ved

Ving

Ven

Regular

Visit

visits

visited

Visiting

visited

Irregular

Drink

drinks

drank

drinking

drunk

 

b-     
Some
verbs have derivational suffixes : -ise , -ize 
(realise / categorize)  and – ify  (identify), according to (Leech, 2006). This category
isn’t that important.

 

3-     
Meaning

(Leech, 2006) denotes that verbs usually definite actions, activities,
events, processes, states, etc.

(Leech, 2006), states that: “an easy test for a verb is: Can the
word vary its form from present tense to past tense?” the base form of the verb
together with the s-form represent the present tense, whereas the ed-form is usually
meant for the past tense. This is true in case of regular verbs, however, for
the irregular verbs it is a different story.

 

 

4-     
Adjectives

 

1-     
Function

According to (Leech, 2006). Adjectives have two functions:

–         
as
head of an adjective phrase : dolphins are {quite amazing}

–         
as a
modifier in a noun phrase : an amazing
cat

 

If a word can fit in these two places,
then the possibility of it being an adjective is very high.

 

 

 

2-     
Form

(Leech, 2006), states that most adjectives  take the suffixes –er , -est  in  case
of comparatives and superlatives forms, for example: big, bigger, biggest, of
course this is in case we are dealing with a one or two
syllable words.  

Simple

Comparative

Superlative

Funny

funnier

funniest

Good

better

best

Beautiful

more beautiful

most beautiful

 

 

3-     
Meaning

Usually adjective describe nouns or add extra characteristics to
it. That is why we ask the question: what kind of book? The soft book.

 

 

4-     
Adverbs 

(Leech, 2006) states that there are three principle types of
adverbs, namely:

–         
Circumstance
adverbs:  She spoke briefly in front of the
audience.

–         
Degree
Adverbs: is this box light enough
for you to carry?

–         
Sentence
Adverbs: Clearly,
there have been unreasonable costs.

1-     
Function

According to the Cambridge Dictionary, “Adverbs can modify verbs,
adjectives, nouns, other adverbs and whole phrases or sentences”.  (Leech, 2006) indicates that the primary role
of an adverb is to be head of an adverb phrase.

 

2-     
Form
:

As (Leech, 2006) indicates, many adverbs are formed by adding –ly to
an adjective. Furthermore, like adjectives, some adverbs have the comparative
and superlative forms:

Hard, harder, hardest

Well, better, best Adverb Type

Question

Examples

Manner
Place
Time
Duration
Frequency
Degree

How?
Where?
When?
How long?
How often?
To what extent?

well, badly, cleverly
here, there, anywhere
now, then, soon, tomorrow
briefly, always
weekly, daily, always
rather, quite, much, hardly

 

 

3-     
Meaning

Adverbs can express many types of meaning. According to (Leech,
2006), there are some key question to test whether a word is an adverb, for example:

How?  To elicit an adverb of
manner

Where to?   To elicit and
adverb of place

How often? To elicit an adverb of frequency

How much? Or to what degree? To elicit an adverb of degree

 

 

 

Section b)

 

Now I am going to adhere to one of the examples stated in section a,
for each word class and discuss how they fit in the testing scales mentioned.

 

 

 

Nouns

 

The word orange: She ate the ripe oranges

Function: Can it take a definite article? (yes) The orange

Form: does it take an –s  in
the plural form? (yes) Oranges

Meaning: Does it refer to a physical thing? (yes) and it is a countable
noun.

 

Noun

Function

Form

Meaning

Orange

The orange

Oranges

a thing

 

 

Verb:

 

The dog was barking

Function: The base form of “barking” is “bark”. When we analyse
this word in the sentence, we can see that it can stand alone.

Form: it has the “Ving” form specified in the table above. (Section
a-Verb-Form)

Meaning: the word “barking” defines an action done by the subject “the
dog”

 

 

Verb

Function

Form

Meaning

barking

 It stands alone

Barking
– Ving

Action

 

Adjective

 

 

 

 

 

In my opinion, you must know the
meaning of the word before you can know the part of speech of the word.  If
you understand the word, you may know the part of speech easily.

 

 

References:

 

·        
https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/grammar

·        
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/about-adjectives-and-adverbs/adverbs-functions

 LFTMO4 ASSIGNMENT TWO

 

2.  Word Classes

a) What are the tests to determine whether a word in
English is a noun, verb, adjective or adverb? Remember to refer to the
literature in answering the question. (20%)

 

b) For each of these four word classes, give one
example of your own and show how it fits each of the tests you mentioned in
section a). (30%)

 

c) To what extent do you think students should be
taught how to do these tests? Give a detailed answer, critically reflecting on
what you have read and explaining how you might incorporate the whole idea into
classroom activities. (50%)

Section a)

In the oxford dictionary, grammar is defined
as: “The whole system and structure of a language or of languages in general,
usually taken as consisting of syntax and morphology (including inflections)
and sometimes also phonology and semantics”. Knowing the part of speech of a word
(noun, adjective, verb, preposition, etc.) is not always easy for L2 learners
studying English.   Some languages are very different from English,
and the students have to learn what “noun”, “verb”, “adjective” and “adverb”
means and their grammatical syntax.

According to (Geoffrey Leech,
 Margaret Deuchar and Robert Hoogenraad,2006),
 there are three criterion used to define
the open classes of Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and Adverbs that can be placed respectively
in the following order according to their importance: Function, Form and
meaning.

Nouns

1-      Function:
 In order to test whether a word is a
noun, one must check if the word comes in the beginning of a noun phrase and
the possibility of it being preceded by a definite article.  

 

2-    
Form:  To test the noun for its form

 

a-      Most nouns have
characteristic suffixes such as:

 ‘-ist’,  example: florist

-ism’,  example:– Optimism

, ‘-ity’,  example: unity

‘-hood’, example:
Parenthood

‘-tion’,
example: intention   /?n?ten·??n/

‘-ence’, example:
reference     /?ref·?r·?ns/

‘-ment’,
example: movement    /?mu?v·m?nt/

 

b-      Most words in
their singular form when changed  into
the plural form we add:

‘S’, ‘es’,  /s/, /z/ or /iz/, for
example respectively:

Orange – Oranges

tomato –  tomatoes

 

or they change their form such as the case of irregular nouns :

Child – Children

Foot- Feet

Tooth – Teeth

Mouse – Mice

 

3-    
Meaning

When we deal
with nouns, we usually mention physical things such as: People (doctor),
Objects (table), Places (street), substances (silver), etc. these nouns are
called: concrete nouns. However, we also have abstract nouns such as :
activities, emotions, ideas, procedures, etc.

According to
(Geoffrey Leech,  Margaret Deuchar and Robert Hoogenraad,2006),  affiliated words in this category of part of
speech, the noun, don’t all act in the same fashion. In relation to form,
function and meaning, there are relevant sub-categories as follows:

a-    
Count/ Mass Nouns 

Example:
(desk, pen, glass, idea) which are refere to as countable nouns.

b-   
Proper/ Common Nouns

Proper NOUNS
:  names of people, places, films, books
..which usually start with capital letter. Example: Europe, Mr. Smith

Common
nouns: they categorize thing into types..

 

c-    
Collective Nouns

Generally speaking collective
nouns are countable, however, even in their singular form to refer to groups of
: people, animals or things.

Example: family, class,
group, team  

Verbs

 

 

1-     
Function

Verbs are the main components of the verb phrase (Leech, 2006). They
can stand alone as predicators or they can follow other verbs. Example: The
dog was barking

One orange has
been cut.

According to (Leech, 20016). It is recommended to “look for the
verb” or verbs first when starting an analysis, because the predicator is the principal
component of a clause.

 

2-     
Form

a-     
The most
important forms are inflections: According to (Leech, 2006 P54 ), verbs have up
to five inflections:

 

Vo

Vs

Ved

Ving

Ven

Regular

Visit

visits

visited

Visiting

visited

Irregular

Drink

drinks

drank

drinking

drunk

 

b-     
Some
verbs have derivational suffixes : -ise , -ize 
(realise / categorize)  and – ify  (identify), according to (Leech, 2006). This category
isn’t that important.

 

3-     
Meaning

(Leech, 2006) denotes that verbs usually definite actions, activities,
events, processes, states, etc.

(Leech, 2006), states that: “an easy test for a verb is: Can the
word vary its form from present tense to past tense?” the base form of the verb
together with the s-form represent the present tense, whereas the ed-form is usually
meant for the past tense. This is true in case of regular verbs, however, for
the irregular verbs it is a different story.

 

 

4-     
Adjectives

 

1-     
Function

According to (Leech, 2006). Adjectives have two functions:

–         
as
head of an adjective phrase : dolphins are {quite amazing}

–         
as a
modifier in a noun phrase : an amazing
cat

 

If a word can fit in these two places,
then the possibility of it being an adjective is very high.

 

 

 

2-     
Form

(Leech, 2006), states that most adjectives  take the suffixes –er , -est  in  case
of comparatives and superlatives forms, for example: big, bigger, biggest, of
course this is in case we are dealing with a one or two
syllable words.  

Simple

Comparative

Superlative

Funny

funnier

funniest

Good

better

best

Beautiful

more beautiful

most beautiful

 

 

3-     
Meaning

Usually adjective describe nouns or add extra characteristics to
it. That is why we ask the question: what kind of book? The soft book.

 

 

4-     
Adverbs 

(Leech, 2006) states that there are three principle types of
adverbs, namely:

–         
Circumstance
adverbs:  She spoke briefly in front of the
audience.

–         
Degree
Adverbs: is this box light enough
for you to carry?

–         
Sentence
Adverbs: Clearly,
there have been unreasonable costs.

1-     
Function

According to the Cambridge Dictionary, “Adverbs can modify verbs,
adjectives, nouns, other adverbs and whole phrases or sentences”.  (Leech, 2006) indicates that the primary role
of an adverb is to be head of an adverb phrase.

 

2-     
Form
:

As (Leech, 2006) indicates, many adverbs are formed by adding –ly to
an adjective. Furthermore, like adjectives, some adverbs have the comparative
and superlative forms:

Hard, harder, hardest

Well, better, best Adverb Type

Question

Examples

Manner
Place
Time
Duration
Frequency
Degree

How?
Where?
When?
How long?
How often?
To what extent?

well, badly, cleverly
here, there, anywhere
now, then, soon, tomorrow
briefly, always
weekly, daily, always
rather, quite, much, hardly

 

 

3-     
Meaning

Adverbs can express many types of meaning. According to (Leech,
2006), there are some key question to test whether a word is an adverb, for example:

How?  To elicit an adverb of
manner

Where to?   To elicit and
adverb of place

How often? To elicit an adverb of frequency

How much? Or to what degree? To elicit an adverb of degree

 

 

 

Section b)

 

Now I am going to adhere to one of the examples stated in section a,
for each word class and discuss how they fit in the testing scales mentioned.

 

 

 

Nouns

 

The word orange: She ate the ripe oranges

Function: Can it take a definite article? (yes) The orange

Form: does it take an –s  in
the plural form? (yes) Oranges

Meaning: Does it refer to a physical thing? (yes) and it is a countable
noun.

 

Noun

Function

Form

Meaning

Orange

The orange

Oranges

a thing

 

 

Verb:

 

The dog was barking

Function: The base form of “barking” is “bark”. When we analyse
this word in the sentence, we can see that it can stand alone.

Form: it has the “Ving” form specified in the table above. (Section
a-Verb-Form)

Meaning: the word “barking” defines an action done by the subject “the
dog”

 

 

Verb

Function

Form

Meaning

barking

 It stands alone

Barking
– Ving

Action