Malcolm York and the surrounding area. However, the

Malcolm X,
after this incident, was named to be the face of the black-and-  Islamic association by Elijah Muhammad. It
was most likely due to his speaking talent, as well as  his self-confident demeanor, that made him
into a role model for many African Americans. In comparison to Martin Luther
king’s Bus Boycott, is Malcolm’s success minor. For one, took Kings
protest  a about a year, and he thus
demonstrated perseverance and a strong desire to fight for the freedom of the
black population. Furthermore has the Boycott obtained  international attention. Malcolm’s
performance, however, was situational and his popularity was limited to his
actions in New York and the surrounding area. However, the support he received
from  NoI is not to underestimate, as
well as that through his merit the membership applications rose as rapidly as
it did.


Afro-Americans that have gathered in front of the police station, that the  police chief bowed before Malcolm’s wishes.
The police chief demanded in  return,
that Malcolm appeased the crowd. Malcolm went out and lifted without a word his
arm, the crowd fell silent and began to disperse. The impressive rescue of
Hinton’s, spread beyond the borders of New York and caused the  increase of the members of the NoI, who were
over 20,000 people already. Elijah Muhammad appointed Malcolm after this event,
the national representatives of the organization.

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Finally in
April 1957, Malcolm X gained national popularity as a member of the NoI as
well. He wanted to help a member of the NoI after said person, Johnson Hinton
got beaten up and jailed. His attempt to save a black person from police
brutality caused a national stir. A short time later, about 100 members of the
“Fruit of Islam”3 gathered, among those members
was Malcolm X himself. While more and more members of the NoI gathered in front
of the police station, Malcolm demanded to be brought to Hinton. The police
refused initially, but the crowd was getting restless and was obviously ready
to storm the guard. At least, heeded the police to his request and let him
through. Hinton was still unconscious and covered in blood, Malcolm  thereupon called for the victim to be
transferred to a hospital and called for the punishment of the perpetrators. It
was probably due to fear, caused by the


In his
sermons, he used his acquired Knowledge of the domination of white people over
Blacks in order to convince his listeners with the presented facts and the
logical conclusions from the teachings of the NoI. Malcolm advocated black
nationalism and counted himself, after the example of Garvey, to be an
separatist. Like Garvey, Malcolm strove in the first place for a Return of
Blacks to Africa which should be financed by the American government. If
America does not want this, then it should provide a fertile territory for
resettlement, as well as money, clothes, machinery and food so the African-Americans
can become self-sufficient. He described these demands to be a debt settlement
after slavery: “After four hundred years of slave labor, we have some back
pay coming. A bill that is owed to us and must be collected.”1 Although he was the son of a
Baptist preacher, Malcolm called Christianity 
the Religion of the white devil and said the Bible to be a “weapon
that white people use to enslave nonwhite people”2. His negative experiences
with white people during his childhood have probably formed his views to such
an extend that he opted for a life of delineation from white society. Also it
seems that during this time, the civil rights movement and the Islam were for
Malcolm X inextricably intertwined, seeing as he reasoned his believe, that
white people are a product of the devil, not only by using historical facts but
by teaching the believe of the NoI. Soon, the membership increased in numbers
and due to this success, Malcolm X was sent in other cities. Through that have
the number of members increased to the point that numerous other NoI temples
could be opened in large cities of the United States. Only two years after his
imprisonment, Malcolm X was considered the most charismatic member of the NoI,
and his relationship to Elijah Muhammad strengthened to the point where one
could have described it to be a father and son relationship.


Malcolm was
transferred to Charlestown State Prison, where he in 1947, met an inmate named
Bimbi, who was known in prison for his wide knowledge in various areas and
subsequently followed the notion that knowledge means power and independence.
This inspired Malcolm, who began reading books in order to further his
knowledge. He showed an intense interest in the texts of American civil rights
activists such as W. E. B. DuBois, and the oppression through white people. One
day Malcolm received a letter from his brother Reginald, who told him of the
Nation of Islam. Reginald himself was a member of said organization. He
reported from Allah as the only true God, and Elijah Muhammad as his Prophet,
that white people are in reality a product of the devil, who wanted to suppress
the black population. In 1948,  Malcolm
converted to the Islam and joined the NoI. Here was the start were lively
exchange letters with Elijah Muhammad began and his studies on racial problems
intensified. The joining of Malcolm’s into the Nation of Islam is   commonly referred to as the beginning of his
career as his life was previously rather unstructured and now had a certain
order, and above all, the manifestation of his faith and strength. After seven
and a half years in prison, X received an early discharged, in August of 1952,
and moved in with his brother Wilbert to Detroit where he got to know the life
of a strongly devoted Muslim family. A short time later, he spoke for the first
time with Elijah Muhammad in person and changed his name from Malcolm Little to
Malcolm X as a sign of his joining. He devoted his free time completely to the
service of  NoI and was appointed in June
1953 to the auxiliary priests of the temple number 1 in Detroit. Then he quit
his Job at Ford in order to devote his entire time to the organization.
Malcolm’s sermons were very popular because he, like Martin Luther King, had an
above-average talent for oratory and was regarded as a witty and dynamic
speaker. Malcolm was particularly good in attracting young African-Americans
for the NoI. Soon was Elijah Muhammad so convinced of him that he transferred
leadership to him in June, 1954 of temple No. 7 in New York. The temple in
Harlem had a very low membership number even though over a million African
Americans lived in New York.  Elijah
Muhammad put all his hopes, into the idea that Malcolm X could solve this
problem, with his inspiring speeches. Malcolm tried very hard to increase the
number of members but it was a slow process due to the amount of different
faiths in Harlem and the fact that NoI was largely unknown at that time. He
began to print leaflets and distribute them throughout the city. This shows
that he strove to be innovative and ambitious.


1942 had
Malcolm visited New York for the first time and was thoroughly impressed by its
black residents. In 1943, he took a job as a waiter in a night club which he
quickly lost and from then on devoted himself exclusively to criminal
activities which included pimping, illegal gambling, drug trafficking, thefts,
and armed robberies. In 1945, Malcolm had returned to Boston and organized a
new burglary ring with his white girlfriend and her sister. In January 1946,
they were finally arrested and while his girlfriend Bea and her sister became a
suspended sentence of 5 years, Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
Regarding Malcolm’s sever imprisonment are there suspicions that the judges
gave him the punishment in first line because of his relationship to a white
woman instead of the actual burglary.


Malcolm X’s
course into the civil rights movement was less straightforward than the one of
Martin Luther King. In the autumn of 1940, he moved to his half-sister Ella, to
Boston, where he met some Criminals. He sold and consumed drugs, and sold
prostitutes to potential Johns. He spent his leisure time with gambling,
dancing and consuming alcohol so he slipped further and further into the
criminal scene. In addition, he now wore eye-catching suits, had his hair
smoothed by using chemicals and had a white girlfriend. All of this stands in
conflict with his original motive of why he moved to Boston and that would be
anonymity – the feeling of being a black person among many. This suggests that
Malcolm X could have in this phase of his life lived through an identity crisis
seeing as since the early childhood of Malcolm, he wanted nothing more than to
isolate himself from white people but now he maintained a relationship to a
white woman and changed himself optically in order to fit in.


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