MECHANICAL as a sustainable building construction material is




B.G.J. Nipuna

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Department of civil enginnering,

University Of moratuwa

Prof R.U. Halwatura

Department of civil enginnering,

University Of moratuwa



Sustainable construction materials are very interested in modern world. Fly ash
stabilized mud concrete blocks are under research stage to provide industry as building
construction material. The main components of fly ash stabilized mud concrete
blocks are soil, fly ash, Sault, sodium hydroxide. Some researches were done to
find out optimum proportion of these material for blocks. This research focused
on the mechanical behaviour of mud concrete blocks. Tests basically do with the
changing bond thickness, mortar type and bond patterns. Compressive loads add
to the wall panel construct with mud concrete blocks and these values compare
with the test values of bricks, cement blocks, CSEB blocks wall panels. Observe
crack patterns and study what to develop for the industrial usage.
Simultaneously test do for the bricks, cement blocks, CSEB blocks wall
also to compare the behaviour. Study the blocks dimensions for
the optimum section and mortar quality is main objectives of this research.
Soil can be considered as very old building construction material. The process
of Develop that material and provide as a sustainable building construction
material is very vital in many ways such as environmentally and economically.
This paper present test values for the wall panels constructed with different
materials and the best mortar and bond pattern for the wall panel construct
form fly ash stabilized mud concrete blocks

Mud concrete blocks, Bricks, Cement
Blocks, CSEB blocks,
Stabilization, Fly ash stabilization, Wall panel, Mechanical behaviour,



started to construct buildings from soil at very early stage. After that step
by step it changed to cement and concrete. But now the tread is to use more sustainable
building construction material for the constructions. Among sustainable
building construction materials soils plays a great role. Many researchers were
done to find out method to use material like soils in optimum way to use
required quality. Soil stabilization, Mud concrete blocks, Geo polymer concrete
are some examples for them.

            Soil modification is the process of
addition of a modifier to a sol to improve its strength and durability. The use
of alternative cheaper materials as stabilizers will greatly enhance the
production of blocks with the desired properties at low cost. It will also
drastically reduce the cost of production and consequently the cost of
construction works (hsjshfhjshfj) many researches were done to find out
stabilization materials for soils. Alkaline activation effect is the most
popular method. In many develop countries like Sri Lanka is need to find out
sustainable and economical materials for the construction. Every county must have
to pay attention not to the development but for sustainable development.

concrete is similar kind of earth stabilized block build by mixing cement and
soil to build block. The mud in this mixture plays a great role as a filler
material and to develop the workability of the mixture. However, the role of
cement in low quantities is to stabilize the soil Mud is one of humankind’s
oldest and most universally used construction materials. Even at the dawn of
humanity sustainable development. So to study and do researches in this stream
is very vital.


Mud concrete blocks

Mud concrete blocks
plays a great role in sustainable building construction material. It is first
developed and introduced to the construction field in Sri Lanka by university
of Moratuwa. Basically concrete consists with Concrete is cement, sand, metal
and water. Instead of using these materials researchers found a mixture
consists with Soil, stabilizing agent, Water mixture.  Mud concrete block which has made by replacing
sand and metal of concrete by fine and coarse aggregates of soil. The strength
of mud concrete blocks is depend on the proportion of sand and gravel mixture.
Cement is also used when preparing mud concrete blocks as a stabilizer in very
low quantities.(Udawattha & Halwatura 2016)

First researchers
invented mixture of clay, soil, water, course and fine sand with some amount of
soil in 2015. In 2017 researchers were found that composition of soil, water, salt,
and sodium hydroxide. Mud concrete block has a self-compacting nature. Self-compaction is a method of compacting by
using its own weight. Porosity cause for the strength of the block and the compaction level
cause for the porosity. Low porosity means high
strength. To reduce porosity we have to introduce compacting technology or
materials to improve compaction. (Engineering
n.d.)Thermal properties also very important
characteristics of construction materials. To achieve self-compacting quality,
water content is very important. But
higher water content will lead to reduction in compressive strength of the mud
concrete blocks. So it is very important to maintain considerable water content
without affecting to the strength of mud concrete block and self-compacting quality.
The optimum proportion for this  experiments
suggested a water content has to be maintained in range of 18% – 20%.(Engineering n.d.)

Wall panel can build by
using md concrete blocks with the cement mortar or another mud mortar. From these
two side we have to first initiate the best binder for mud concrete blocks wall
panels. If we maintain precise sand, gravel, water content and good compaction
level we can achieve fare face which will reduce the finishing cost in wall construction.
Compared with other wall materials such as concrete blocks and burnt bricks mud
concrete blocks have good natural colour and aesthetic beauty.  In load bearing mud concrete blocks get the highest
place. Durability and thermal comfort, keeping the low embodied energy is added
advantages of mud concrete blocks. (jsjfjhfjhsjhjghjgh). Mud concrete blocks
will become very popular in construction world in future. Because of the easy
production process, new appearance, low cost constructions and the lower energy
consumption will cause for the popularity of mud concrete blocks in near
future..(Lanka 2015)



main aim of this research is to find out the possibility of inventing a new
“mud block” and study the mechanical behaviour of them to develop for industry
usage. To develop mud concrete blocks which has required strength for load
bearing walls while satisfying less weight and low cost together with simple
manufacturing process.

find out optimum mortar combination for bond and study the crack patters  

following methodology will follow in this research.

Mud concrete blocks with pre designed proportions

other materials bricks, cement blocks, CSEB blocks for the wall panel

wall panel with 3 mortar mix proportions.

wall panels to check the mechanical behavior

the crack patterns and record values

them with the other material type values








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