p.p1 will be pulled by a certain molecule

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“Our seas are being degraded, fish are dying but humanity is threatened too”. The ocean is considered one of the most diverse and expensive places on earth, but unfortunately is being threatened by the pollution that is occurring because of us humans. The marine life is dying many animals are being exploited. Dumping trash, spilling oil, toxic wastes, floating plastic and many other factors contribute to the pollution of the marine life. Water makes up 71% of the earth’s surface, billions of molecules are present in water, each molecule is made up of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. Many factors affect the properties of water which causes it to change its state of matter; it could be either solid, liquid or gas. Moreover density is also affected by temperature and the type of material.

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Water has many physical properties and some of them include, Surface tension; surface tension results when the surface of the water comes into direct connection with the gas in the air, resulting in the formation of an elastic sheet.When the molecules and particles of water interact with each other; each molecule will be pulled by a certain molecule in a specific direction resulting in a net force of zero and creating surface tension. Surface tension is measured by newton per meter  (Nm-1), it is also represented by the symbol ?. This property allows certain insects to stand on the surface of the water. Water has the greatest surface tension when comparing it to other liquids. 

The density of the water increases and decreases according to the density of the surrounding environment. Density is the mass per unit volume. Saltiness and temperature are the reasons why seawater density changes from place to place. When water has a high temperature it means that it is less dense; this is because the molecules are spread out, while when water has a low temperature that means it has a high density. Deep water has a higher density than shallow water, this is because the water molecules are tightly packed; the weight of water above is pulling them downwards. Dense water sinks to the bottom of the ocean while less dense water floats on the surface. The denser the water the less light that will reach the animals living down in the ocean, fish living in the ocean have adapted to this condition, they have to accommodate to this condition in order to live and hunt their prey. Most of the animals food comes from the energy which is obtained from the sun; the sun is the primary generator of energy. Benthic organisms live with no light at all; the animals and coral have adapted to this condition, they survive and create large number of coral without the need of sunlight.

Although water is a very crucial substance on earth; it has both advantages and disadvantages, it can be endangering to many lives but can also impact millions of lives.Water is causing destruction throughout the entire environment; wildlife and plant life are dying, polar ice caps are melting, animals are being extinct etc.. Polar ice caps are areas of land which contain ice that are either found in the north or south poles of the planet. The increase in temperature in the polar ice caps is causing the ice to melt in these areas. Global warming is occurring in the arctic poles, temperatures in the Arctic poles are increasing 3 to 4 times faster than 100 years ago. The disappearance of ice in the arctic poles is causing a threat to millions of animals living in these areas including the polar bears, seals, marine birds, many kinds of insects etc.. Another reason why many animals and coral are being extinct is because the water that the coral are living is being polluted by plastic, garbage oil spills etc…

The expansion of water upon freezing is the reason why ice a solid floats on water which is a liquid. All liquids expand when their temperature increases and shrink when their temperature decreases, unlike water which behaves unusually in this situation. Waters most common density is 1 gram per centimeter cubic (gram/cm3), but when water is cooled its density increases. At the temperature of 4 degree Celsius water reaches its maximum density but then its density decreases gradually until it reaches the freezing point. The structure of water molecules is unusual, in which there is a strong network of hydrogen bonds, it is in were each oxygen atom is surrounded by two hydrogen atoms; an intermolecular force of attraction is then formed. The oxygen atom has a negative charge while the two hydrogen atoms are positively charged, so the water molecules stick to one another and form hydrogen bonds. The bond gets stronger as the temperature decreases. The bond occurring causes the crystalline lattice structure to be very open. Water is considered to have the smallest volume but the maximum density which is reached at 4 degree Celsius. When the temperature of the water decreases its density decreases as well, therefore the water with less density rises to the top while the warmer water with a higher density sinks to the bottom, water freezes from top till bottom this is the main reason why icebergs float. This is the main reason why water expands upon freezing.

In conclusion, water is considered the most vital substance on earth, without its presence life on earth would be impossible. Water is a substance that has both pros and cons. Moreover, without waters unique physical property which is the expansion of water upon freezing none of the coral would be able to survive.  Water is also affected by its density and its surface tension these are the properties that cause water to be considered one of the most abundant substances on earth.


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