ALI HASSAN MWINYI
Ali Hassan Mwinyi (born
8 May 1925 in Kivure, Pwani Region, Tanzania) is a retired politician who served as
the second President of the
United Republic of Tanzania from 1985 to 1995.
include Interior Minister and Vice President. He
also was chairman of the ruling party, the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM)
from 1990 to 1996.1
2nd President of Tanzania
5 November 1985 – 23 November 1995
second session of leadership, Tanzania experienced economic problems in which agricultural
production was low and farmers were not produce enough food for country itself.
The cash crops (tea, coffee, cotton and sisal)was falling each year resulting
in shortage of foreign exchange, they required to import massive (large) amount
of food from abroad when the time a country had no money to pay for it.
Due to poor economic growth, infrastructure
fallen to disrepair, roads had deteriorated, hospital had no drugs and schools
had no books so led to destruct the social services. The external debt was
increase and honorable Mwinyi sought to reach the agreement
with International Monetary Fund (IMF), after agreement socialism was abandoned
and remodels the Tanzanian economy along free-market lines which lead to allow
capital flow however in slowly. Also in this session of leadership, MWINYI
introduced three years economic recovery plan (ERP) that resulted in IMF
approval of standby loan which was replaced in 1987 by three years structural
adjustment facilities. The ERP was announced at a time when Tanzanians were
lining up for the most basic food commodities, the ERP involved devaluation of
Tanzania currency, raising of agricultural producers prices.
In 1986 improvement of relations with
Tanzania’s neighboring in which agreement with Malawi to allow the nation
greater access to the port city of Dar- es-Salaam and pledged military support
to president Chissano of Mozambique to guard the railway and fight against what
was perceived as south Africa supported destabilizing forces. And in 1987, reinforcement cordial relations
with neighboring Mozambique, Zimbabwe and nearby Zambia, relation with
neighboring Burundi have been strained with Tanzania expelling thousands of
Burundi nations allegedly living illegally in Tanzania.
January and February 1992, multi-party political system were Introduced under
pressure of foreign donors, legal and constitution changes led to registration
of 11 political parties whereby two parliamentary by election in 1994 which
both elections won by Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) and were the first ever
multiparty election in Tanzania history. In 2000 second multiparty general
elections the ruling CCM party’s candidate Benjamin W. Mkapa won by 71% of
Tanzania residents and in Zanzibar presidential election, Aman Abeid Karume the
son of former president Abeid Aman
Karume defeated CUF candidate Maalim Seif shariff Hamad the election were
marred by irregularities and subsequent political violence claimed.
in this session liberalization of morals, believers, values (without breaking
laws) and economy were improved and referred as “everything goes” mzee rukhsa. Many argue that during this
leadership session tenure of the country was in transition from the tailed
socialist orientation of Julius Nyerere that brought its economy in to its
BENJAMINI WILLIAM MKAPA
was born in 1938 in Ndanda, near Masasi in southern Tanganyika. He graduated from Makerere University in
Uganda in 1962 with a degree in English. He also attended Columbia University
in 1963 and was awarded a master’s degree in international affairs. Previous
posts include being the administrative officer in Dodoma and the Minister for
Science, Technology and Higher Education. He also led the Tanzania mission to
Canada in 1982 and to the United States from 1983 to 1984. He was the Minister
of Foreign Affairs from 1977 to 1980 and again from 1984 to 1990.
3rd President of Tanzania
23 November 1995 – 21 December 2005
1995, Mkapa was elected as President based on a popular anti-corruption
campaign and the strong support of former president Julius Nyerere . Mkapa’s
anti-corruption efforts included creation of an open forum called the
Presidential Commission on Corruption (Warioba Commission) and increased
support for the Prevention of Corruption Bureau.
second five-year term of office as President ended in December 2005. During
this term in office, Mkapa privatized state-owned corporations and instituted
free market policies. His supporters
argued that attracting foreign investment would promote economic growth. His
policies won the support of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund and
resulted in the cancellation of some of Tanzania’s foreign debts.
has been criticized for some ineffectiveness of his anti-corruption efforts as
well as for his lavish spending. He spent £15 million on a private presidential
jet, as well as almost £30 million on military aviation equipment which experts
deemed beyond the limited needs of the country’s armed forces.
was over the latter purchase that British International Development Secretary
Clare Short expressed public outrage, resulting in her becoming known as ‘Mama
Radar’ in the Tanzanian press.
left office due to a two-term limit, Mkapa is dogged by many accusations of
corruption among them improperly appropriating to himself and his former
finance Minister Daniel Yona the lucrative “Kiwira Coal Mine” in the
southern highlands of Tanzania without following procedures.
privatizing the Kiwira Coal Mine to himself, he broke the Tanzanian
constitution, which does not allow a president to do business at the state
served as a Trustee of Aga Khan University from November 2007 until 2012.2
the side of political it was still growing slowly but he used dictatorship on
his ruling the democracy was there because they used free and fear elections
but he was one who had the final say ,the leaders they did what he decided due
to his dictatorship forces on the auctions.
to his slogan policy which stated that “mkukuta na kilimo” his aims
was to fight against poverty and he enforced people (citizens) to engage in
agricultural activities so that people to fully fill the basic needs and to
avoid corruption to engage in investments and so on.
JAKAYA MRISHO KIKWETE;
Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete (born
7 October 1951) was the fourth President of Tanzania, in office from 2005 to 2015. Prior to his election as
President, he was the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1995 to 2005 under his predecessor, Benjamin Mkapa. He has also served as the Chairperson of
Union in 2008–2009 and the Chairman
of the Southern African Development CommunityTroika on Peace, Defence and Security in 2012–2013.3
4th President of Tanzania
21 December 2005 – 5 November 2015
Mrisho Kikwete started his session from 2005 to 2010 then again from 2010 to
2015 and the system he used is capitalism on ruling our nation where by
everybody own their property accordingly
situation during Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete session influenced by various factors
such as economic situation, social situation as well as democracy of Tanzania.
Also there are some political events take place during Kikwete session and also
contribute to the various development stages during this session as categorized
in various factors as follows:-
Kikwete session Tanzania developed to the middle economy due to the various
political slogans and policies formulated. Programs and project implementation
with promoted social economic growth, create jobs, increases people incomes,
eradicate poverty and enable people to live a decent life.
is improvement in political, ethical of democratically as well as human right
through political process.
Kikwete session Tanzania develop objective for our development vision to 2025
launched in the year 2000. In 2010 we concerned year’s long term perspective
plan which is divided into three medium term plans of five years each. The
purposes of doing so are to guide the implementation of the objective of the
vision in a structured manner for the reaming 15 years.
vision is informed and cognizant of the need for the economy to grow at fast
pace, develop human capital, increases people across to basic social and
economic resources, reduce income poverty and create a conducive environment
for growth of the productive services sectors. Also sound environmental
management policies and practices have been emphasized good governance,
democracy; human right and rule of law have been underscored in the vision as
under Kikwete session the economic development was emphasized through
agriculture productivity through the slogan as KILIMO KWANZA and through