SISTER CALLISATA ROY
Sister Callisata Roy used the
adaptation model as the basis of her nursing theory. She believed the patients
would change and adapt with the changing surroundings using both innate and
acquired mechanisms. In order to improve the condition of the patient’s health,
there would have to be positive adaptation. If a patient were unsuccessful in
adapting, they would be unsuccessful in the integration of human and environment.
Roy addressed major concepts such as
nursing, person, environment, and health.
Once the nurse completed the goal of promoting adaptation and dignity,
then the health of the patient would incline. The nurse would focus not solely
on the patient, but on the family, community, and society as well. This happened
through the concise manipulation of the external stimuli and environmental
surroundings. The patient’s health response would be influenced by both
internal and external conditions experienced by the patient. Adaptation would
occur if the stimuli were accepted and if an integration of state and process
followed. Goals ranged from personal awareness to survival and growth. The
health would then rise from that adaptation; however, illness would follow if
the modification weren’t successful. This cycle of change would continue
throughout the lifetime of the individual.
The nursing practice of today still
refers to Roy’s four adaptive modes since all nurses address patient’s
physiologic needs, self-concept, role function, and interdependence in
adaptation throughout the care process. If a nurse uses the adaptation model,
it can help to organize the nursing education and guide nursing practice though
clinical assessment and intervention strategies.
Madelline Lenninger is known for her
theory of transcultural nursing. Lenninger stresses the importance of each
patient’s background and culture instead of looking solely at the physical
patient for physiological and psychological needs. She used her knowledge of
similarities and differences between different cultural groups to develop the
concept of assessing the patient’s belief system.
Lenninger’s transcultural nursing
theory addressed the major concepts of nursing, person, environment, health,
and illness. An understanding and respect towards each patient’s individuality
should be given by all individuals, especially nurses. Since nurses are frequently
exposed to a varying belief system, they should familiarize themselves to the
many different practices of religions and cultures to help fill the cultural
gaps in healthcare. Each person consists of their individual beliefs, thoughts,
feelings, and values and those beliefs influence how they perceive illness. In order
for the nurse to realize what the appropriate treatment methods to utilize are,
they must understand their patient’s personal definition of health and illness.
Since the environment has such a major impact on care, if the setting is too
drastically different a patient could become disoriented and experience
cultural shock. In order to prevent this occurrence, nurses should make a great
effort to be aware of important symbolic markers, arrangements, and individuals
that are significant for each culture. Both wellness and illness are shaped by
factors such as perception, coping skills, and the patient’s social level.
still today use the transcultural theory in patient interaction. Different
religions have different medical considerations that need to be addressed,
along with practices that must be kept. By performing an initial cultural-logical
assessment, the nurse will be able to create a care plan specifically adapted
to that patient which abides to any cultural or religious considerations