Skin tendency to metastasize and cause death than

Skin
cancer is a preeminent global public health problem. Over the past three
decades, skin cancer counting is more than the combined incidence of cancers of
the colon, lung,breast, and prostate cancer. Skin cancer is generally classified
into two discrete categories such as malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic
cutaneous carcinoma (NMSC). NMSC is more frequent than melanoma, among this basal
cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts the majority of cases for about 80%–85% and has a
low rate of metastasis, whereas squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has a higher
tendency to metastasize and cause death than BCC. In contrast, melanoma stand
for less than one percent of skin cancer but accounts for 80% of all cutaneous
carcinomas related deaths. An estimated five-year survival rate of melanoma
patients was detected about 98%, but it falls to 62%  when the disease reaches the lymph nodes, and
18 percent when metastasizes to distant organs.

 

DNA
is the molecular target for many of the drugs that are used in cancer therapeutics,
and these are proven as potent inducers of cell death. They act via a different
mechanism based on the chemistry of the lesions in the cell they initiate
apoptosis. During the last ten years, specific DNA lesions that trigger
apoptosis have been identified. These include O6-methylguanine, base
N-alkylations, bulky DNA adducts, DNA cross-links and DNA double-strand breaks
(DSBs). Potentially lethal events in the cell are DNA double-strand breaks
(DSBs) that prevent the replication and transcription, cause cell-cycle arrest
activate pro-apoptotic genes such as BAX (BCL2-associated X protein), PUMA (p53
upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and FAS receptor finally apoptosis.
Anticancer agents that target DNA are some of the most effective agents in clinical
use and have produced significant increases in the survival of cancer patients,
but unfortunately, they are extremely toxic.

Development
of effective and side effects lacking therapy in health care is the new
direction to combat cancer treatment. Bioactive ingredients of plant secondary
metabolites are proven as a potential in this regard as they pretend differentially
on cancer cells only, without altering normal cells. Phytochemicals exhibit a
wide range of effects, which works in multiple targets like as antioxidant,
anti inflammatory, anti angiogenic to prevent,
impede, delay, or cure cancer. 
Essential oils, the concentrated hydrophobic liquids, have long been
used in traditional medicine for their specific aromas and also as flavoring
agents in food. The lipophilic nature of these Essential oils enables them to
easily cross the membranes of the cells and reach inside the cell. The majority
of essential oils components are terpenoids in chemical nature, most commonly
monoterpenes. Alpha pinene (AP) is an organic compound of the monoterpene
class, one of two isomers of pinene. It is found in the oils of many species of
many coniferous trees, notably the pine and also found in the essential oil of
rosemary.  AP isolated from pine trees
exhibited strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study,
we investigated the anticancer effect of AP and its mechanism of action in human
skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and melanoma cells (A375).