The free hand and without a computer is

The benefits and
limitations of using pictorial techniques to represent a given engineering

The benefits
of isometric drawings include; isometric drawings can provide an all-inclusive
view of a given part/assembly/design. When using orthographic views, it can be
difficult to get a clear picture of how the various views fit together to form
the final part. I would say that the main disadvantage of an isometric drawing
would be that it can get cluttered more easily than orthographic views. You can
use an isometric drawing to show the dimensions, callouts etc. that an
orthographic drawing commonly shows, but if you are not careful with their placement,
the drawing can get incredibly messy. This is the advantage of orthographic
drawings, that you can break up the technical information among the different
views so that no single view gets too cluttered. Overall I’d say that if you’re
dealing strictly with engineers or technical people, e.g. machinists, then the
orthographic views are probably sufficient. They are used to seeing them so
interpretation will not be a problem. If you’re dealing with non-technical
people, e.g. purchasing, then you may want to go with isometric. It will be
easier for them to get a better view of what it is you are looking for. In the
drill vice jaw shown in figure 1 multiple views are shown, you can interpret
from the views how each side is meant to look like and the size of the product
you are making from the drawings.

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There are many benefits of using a drawing board as a
pictorial technique. A benefit for drawing the diagram free hand and without a
computer is that you can see what you are doing and how it looks, however if
you are using CAD you may not see the whole thing as the computer screen may
not be big enough to be able to see the whole design. Another benefit of using
a drawing board and paper and pencil is that the design cannot be lost or
deleted by accident as it could be on CAD, this means that it will be a hard
copy therefore it is harder for another person/company to steal the idea. This
could be a problem especially if the design is not patented. This is a great
benefit as it is unique to the company/manufacture.

Just like the benefits there are limitations to using
a drawing board and paper and pencil. One of the big limitations is moving and
trying to keep the drawing safe and secure. With the drawing it is hard to move
it to different locations as it is a big piece of paper/ separate pieces of
paper and you need to make sure that it does not have folded creases or allow
it to be damaged. To combat this you can put it in a portfolio or a rolling
tube however even with these they are still quite big and hard to move around
unlike CAD, which is easy as you can have it as a file on a small memory stick that
can be easily transferred. CAD designs can also be copied and shared on
multiple devices, this is handy if the CAD design is constantly being edited
and innovated by multiple designers, which is likely. This is also a limitation
as the file could be copied and stolen by someone. Another limitation of a
drawing board is that it is very hard to store as it is very big and it take up
a lot of room whereas with CAD it takes up little room and memory making it
much better and easier to store. Other Limitations include; if you make a
mistake you have to rub it out which could potentially leave marks or have to
start again. You may also have to keep sharpening the pencil to make sure it is
always sharp, the line is consistent depending on the size of the design, and
the time is takes to draw it. Additionally it takes a lot more time and effort
than CAD does. You will also have to keep changing equipment such as set squares
and triangles and also always having to switch to a roller to get the precise
measurement and finally if you need to eat or drink you will have to move out
the area to have food or drink which may waste time and may mean you miss the


To summarize the points above the following benefits
and limitations are in the table below.

Isometric projection



-Very detailed (Easier for the
manufacturer to understand.
-Perpendicular lines
-Shows all 3 sides of the
drawing, top, side and front
-Can have more than 3 views to
show viewable angles on complex designs
-Used by manufacturers in the UK
and USA
-Doesn’t take as a long to draw
the different views as there is less

-Hard to draw/produce
-Not good for products that are
-Rear of the object cannot be
seen which means some important information could be not be visible.


angle projection



-Detailed with dimensions
-Good for machining parts
-Easy to see faults with the
-Follows universal standards
therefore it can be understood worldwide and produced world wide

-People not in industry would
find the drawing hard to visualize
-Specialist equipment is
required, templates, set squares, compasses.
-It takes longer to draw
multiple angles


In the engineering drawing given you can clearly see
that it is a first angle projection and that it is an orthographic drawing or a
wall attachment adapter. You can see this because it has the first angle
projection symbol in the bottom right corner box which is below the title and
also the way that the drawing is laid out. This type of drawing and this
drawing itself will be used by the manufacturer to produce a product for a
customer, this drawing will first be given to an engineer to interpret it and
then the product will be produced by either using machinery or humans, this will
be the final product.

This particular engineering drawing is very well laid
out and the drawing is in the centre or the page and all of the important
information such as the scale and size/date are all presented neatly in the
bottom left corner so it is easy to read and also easy to spot where it is
rather than all spread out over the page, also the text is a good size as it is
readable and mostly consistent, this all makes it much easier to interpret the

In the figure, it also shows the manufacture the sizes
of the holes that need to be drilled into the product and it will also show
weather the holes drilled require thread for screws or just to be left as holes
for bolts for example.

When the engineering drawing arrives at the
manufacture there are many manufacturing methods used, the British method is
when an engineer uses several different machines and their own skills to
produce the final product.

This drawing will be interpreted to make a prototype
by the manufacture and is essential that the drawing is 100% accurate or there
may be a problem in the production of the product. The drawing is basically
meant to be a paper copy of the product therefore all the dimensions must be
correct to be made the correct specification. If the drawing is not produced
properly or is interpreted wrong, there are many problems that it can use such
as the product in this cause the wall attachment adapter not working when it is
tested and therefore the drawing must be re-made to make sure that the
prototype will work when they test it again.

When this happens there are many problems and issues
it causes to the manufacture and the company making the product they include;
the waste of man power, waste of factory hours where other products could have
been produces, waste or materials to make the prototype, labour cost meaning
that the company will have to pay the staff to do the job again to make sure it
is corrected and also it will damage the image of the company. People will know
that there has been a mistake when making a product as it must be published by
the company by law and therefore this can damage the image or the company and
people may lose faith in the company and think that they shouldn’t use the
company in case this happens to their prototype of with the want to make and
use. Along with this if there is an issue with making the prototype it means
that the will be a delay in it getting to the customer which will cause the
costumer extra problems because they may need it urgently.


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