The variety and richness of destinations around
the world have played an important role in the success of the tourism
industries. Tourist destination is
about all the activities, processes and spatial patterns which attracts tourist
and investors, it focuses on accessibility responding to the consumer’s need to
have easy access. Tourists are continuously seeking new experiences such as
authenticity of destinations, learning about different cultures, learning about
the history of the destination and understanding the lifestyle of the host
community. Tourism industry faces new and increasing challenges after each year
which arise from the changes in environment conditions and changes in tourist
behavior and interest. Therefore, these new trends must be taken into
consideration when planning and marketing the destination.
Natural-formed attraction consists
of the environment and natural resources. Natural resources include wildlife,
viewpoints, national parks and outstanding natural formed environment that
serves as a famous or national landmark for tourist to visit such as the
Niagara Falls or The Grand Canyon.
Culture attraction consists of
entertainments and human activities.
There are also other types of
tourism which are emerging like medical tourism. However, the number of
visitors and infrastructures which are needed to support these various forms of
tourism can put a major strain on the different resources which attract
The spatial patterns shown on the maps evolved throughout the 19th and
The Western European concentration included England, France and Italy.
In the late 1900’s the upper classes of Victorian Britain undertook tourism
development and was considered the first signs of modern day tourism. This tourism
was initially concentrated around/in Europe where majority young men or women
tourist travelled to visit famous landmarks of classical Europe, including
cultural areas towns such as Venice, Florence or local spa-towns. Easy
accessibility such as railways were developed shortly after throughout Europe
in the mid 1840s’ making it cheaper to travel across Europe, but this
restricted tourism to be strongly clustered around the European continent
resulting in only a single concentration pattern. Any further development of
international travel had less investment ratio and further lack attractions or
facilities that other countries already excelled in.
Europe involved the global pattern of tourism, where few areas of the
world were more dispersed and not fully involved. Tourism has since then became
totally dispersed including continents such as Antarctica which once was an
area that wasn’t particularly visited but the diversity of tourist travelling
has transformed Antarctica into a tourism destination although its natural cold
temperature wasn’t particularly favored by some tourists. Some of these new
areas are the fastest growing, experiencing rates of growth significantly
faster than Europe
More extensive international travel beyond this was unheard of.?largely explain the limited distances
travelled and the absence of attractions or facilities beyond Europe.
Temporal pattern changed the 19th century of tourism and
countries such as India, Australia and N.Z had invested into international
airports allowing foreign tourist to travel to and from. Temporal process created a dispersed pattern
and compared to earlier spatial patterns of tourist travelling to is also
linked to transportation factor including airplanes travelling overseas has
improved the distribution of tourist. In 2011, Australia had an international
visitor of about 1.156million which was a 3.3% growth in economy revenue, China
with 18.6% growth having only 145,524 international tourists entering the
country while other countries such as Japan suffered -21.4% in annual growth
this is simply due to natural factors such as climate change which cause many
of the international tourist to be less appealed to travelling over to Japan
due to either hot or cold temperature which is undesirable to different
Unlike Japan which
mainly focused on easy accessibility and its famous cultural exotic food and
practices, Europe continued to remain as the largest country for arriving
tourist and still receives 51.5% of tourist which is obviously clustered around
the regions of Europe which is noticeable comparing to other tourist
destination that is less concentrated and a little more dispersed as Asia,
Oceania and Australia receives only 22.0%, North and South America receiving
15.9% and Near east only at 5.6%, given by the report of world tourism trips;
each country has different attractions which each cater to the different needs
of a FIT, PT, SIT or GT traveler and not only personal interest affects the
rates of how only the Near-East had only received 5.6% of tourist is due to its
temperature being above 2011 global average: 13.9°C which was considered the hottest temperature since the
climates are clustered around France, Spain and Italy Southern Europe’s most emblematic climate is
that of the Mediterranean climate, which has become a typically known
characteristic of the area, which is due to the large subtropical semi-permanent
center of high atmospheric pressure found. The Mediterranean climate covers
much of Portugal, Spain, Southeast France, Italy, Albania, Greece, the Western
and Southern coastal regions of Turkey as well as the Mediterranean islands.
Those areas of Mediterranean climate present similar vegetation’s suitability
perfect for dry hills, small hills, pine forests and olive trees which affects the % rate of
Cooler climates are concentrated in certain parts of Southern
European countries, especially within the mountain ranges of Spain and Italy.
Additionally, the north coast of Spain experiences a colder climate.
tourism is one of the largest and fastest-growing global tourism markets.
Culture and creative industries are increasingly being used to promote
destinations and enhance their competitiveness and attractiveness. Many
locations are now actively developing their tangible and intangible cultural assets
as a means of developing comparative advantages in an increasingly competitive
tourism marketplace, and to create local distinctiveness in the face of globalization.
The Impact of Culture on Tourism is
the growing relationship between tourism and culture, and the way in which businesses
have together to become major drivers of destination attractiveness and
competitiveness. Based on recent case studies that illustrate the different
facets of the relationship between tourism, culture and regional attractiveness,
and the policy interventions which can be taken to enhance the relationship,
this publication shows how a strong link between tourism and culture can be
fostered to help places become more attractive to tourists, as well as
increasing their competitiveness as locations to live, visit, work and invest
Cultural factor is important for
international and domestic tourists because historical buildings, monuments,
artifacts is usually concentrated in the UK, Germany, France, Spain, Italy and
Turkey which one of the few countries in the European region to have a good %
of international tourist arriving to explore the cultural understanding cultural
diversity and customs are centered around Europe cluster, Asia Cluster,
American/ Mexico cluster cultural and sporting events are concentrated World
cup, Oktoberfest, Olympics etc.
Easy accessibility is built upon Channel tunnel, Railway
networks, High speed trains, Euro-duplex in Europe, Highways, international
airports. – Europe/Asia/American clusters
While cultural promotion is centered on the internet 100%
pure NZ campaign, internet, TV videos
Social media/Internet booking – The
Internet has had a major impact on tourism both for providers and consumers.
This article classifies and analyzes the wealth of research published in major
tourism journals over the past 10 years to identify major areas of focus and
gaps in the research landscape related to the Internet in tourism. This makes accessibility to accommodation,
events, vehicle booking and other business establishment much more accessible
before any domestic or international tourist travels to the location.
The economic and social significance of tourism are very
important and the two factors have affiliated to the response of a destination to tourist
arrivals or an attempt by a destination to attract tourists – this leads to
both vertical and horizontal integration of the tourist industry. ?
the economy can provide the necessary infrastructure and investment required for
improved tourism development which is significant to tourist for people and is
noticeable by how positive a country’s economy is operating and the social
factors such as whether a tourist is an Independent (FIT), group (SIT), package
or tour group which has seen Australia to receive 41% of tourist as independent
travelers, 45% of SIT tourist and 31% of package tourist with China reasonably having
31% of tour group tourist, this has an impact on each other that is determine
how they arrive as a tourist and where they go travel given their personal
interest and what type of tourist they are. Spatial patterns of historical
landmarks and attractions being connected via airports, state-highway makes
travelling much more mobile and prosperous as tourism will increasingly become
significant for people.
The economic significance of tourism development is massive, whether it
is assessed at a global, national or local level. The most obvious economic
significance is how fast the tourism sector has grown globally and the extent
to which it impacts on the wider economy. The significance can be summed up in
the following statistics: tourism provided 9% of global GDP with tourism
directly supporting 91,900 NZ full-time jobs which accumulates of 4.8% of New
Global tourism industry is expected to continue to grow by an average 4%
annually which will increase expenditure on infrastructure during the temporal
variation changes and investment, which Australia, being one of the key markets
in tourism, had an annual growth of 3.3% by the end of the year 2011 and
noticeable tourism growth in China with an 18.6% growth in the same following
year, Dec 2011.
Economic significance of tourism development requires large investment,
assessed at a global, local or national scale.
International tourist arrivals grew by 3.0% near
the end of 2011. According to the April Interim Update of the UNWTO World
Tourism Barometer, growth was positive in all world (sub)regions during January
and February 2011, apart from the Middle East and North Africa. South
America and South Asia led growth (both at +15%), followed by Subsaharan Africa
(+13%) and Central and Eastern Europe (+12%).
and the Pacific, the region with one of the noticeable negative international
expenditure in 2011, saw its pace of revenue slow down (+6%), although from a
very strong performance the previous year. Results were slow for the southern hemisphere
where Australia had suffered -1.5% growth and the north-east-western hemisphere
the UK suffered -15.1% although USA suffered -9.1% which is small considering
Japan had only suffered a -34.6% in international visitor expenditure making
itself noticeable when there is a decline in revenue from tourist, leaving
China to only have a positive revenue profit during the end of the month Sept,
The multiplier effect is evident at a global context of tourism where a
paved road providing improved accessibility, could lead to further growth.
Countries such as China has experienced a
boom in tourism arrivals since the late 20th century, but still grew
at a 18.6% growth as an average expenditure in tourism spent about $404million,
since then it has attracted millions of tourists each year. China has since
then become the top 5 visited countries and in 2011, the first ‘serous’
investment into tourism was shown during the 2008 Olympics which demonstrated
the significance of tourism industry for China. Major investment in accommodation
and transport were needed to connect shopping malls and accommodation centered
around the National stadium in Beijing which now since has become a cluster of
a famous landmark and a shopping district thus had indirect effect on
emplyoyment like construction, printing and other production line or work. This
investment is important for not only the Olympics and future tourism investment
for any other countries as it is going to support the rapid growing economic
sector of tourism and while during 2011 many new facilities were developed and
pre-existing facilities clustered around the event were also upgraded,
including accommodations built close to the national stadium with easy
accessibility of 10-15min drive leading directly towards the national stadium.
Tourism industry has caught attention as one of the famous landmarks for
tourist destinations, stimulating employment opportunities in China and years
after has supported the growth of the Chinese economy which resulted in 5.5%
growth and an increase in disposable income by much of the Chinese population.
While in N.Z. tourism statistics showed that
764,000 international tourists visited N.Z. in 2011 and that this is a growth
in market and tourism industry. Tourism is a major industry for N.Z and
employing 91,900 Full time employment which is 4.8% of the total workforce
which has been estimated as many as 1/10 New Zealanders being directly and
indirectly affiliated in the tourism industry and earns 4.8% of New Zealand’s
GDP. Tourism contributes to the economy in different methods of providing
people to have extra disposable income to spend elsewhere and taxes providing
the New Zealand government for investment in tourism development including
spatial variation and concentrating tourism infrastructure and landmarks all
connected via roads and state-highway.
While some countries also took to tourism to
diversify their economics GDP and investment to improve levels of development
by creating employment opportunities. Many jobs opportunities have since then,
from 2011, grew because of tourism development/growth which is also look by
foreigners for employments but also providing the locals employment in lower
paid sectors of the economy.
The economic enterprise resulting
from interacting between domestic and increasingly large number of tourists. It
creates social significance in the country’s culture which is influence by the
interest which creates a sense of pride when performing for tourist such as ‘Maori
Mitai Tours’ in New Zealand. This is important to understand how widespread the
culture is in both short and long term developments have become, but this is
also dependent on the spatial pattern of how and when tourist arrive and
whether they’re affected by natural factors. Any tourism destination (country)
has a marginal control over the supply of tourists which is largely influenced
by the economy of the source region.
But as tourism industry grow
over the next years it would create continuous issues both social and economic
such as tourist damaging environment by walking on grounds that can be easily
damaged and interest foreigners to invest into businesses which leads to an
outflow of money coming out of New Zealand and elsewhere.