Wireless control, distributed figuring, intrusion discovery, disaster management

 Wireless sensor network is an accumulation of
huge number of sensor nodes organized or dispersed that combine to form a grid
which is used to sense information such as pressure, degree, sound, tremor,
movement etc. after collecting data through sensor nodes the data is
collectively send to a sink node where statistics can be stored and figure out.
The data which is required can be rectifying by asking queries and gathering
result from the base station and the facts gathered by sensor nodes is in its
accurate form. These devices are implanted at a cheaper cost than traditional
wired system. All sensor nodes consist of a battery enabled chip, a radio Trans
receiver, a memory chip and a position finding system 1. Sensor nodes are
constrained devices consist of less efficient battery backup, a small memory
chip in relation to storage and other limited resources owing to the restricted
structure of sensor nodes.

The main issue
with the wireless sensor web is the nodes are abandoned for a long period of
time or forever, have a short duration of lifetime and the topology used for
implementation is generally unknown. The main challenges in WSN web emerge due
to restricted resources the nodes have and deployment of these nodes in adverse
conditions, where it is almost insuperable or invincible for humans to attend
or observe the sensor nodes Owing to the negligence it may effects the
effectiveness of many applications in the field of military or public
applications such as safety, tactical surveillance, inventory control,
distributed figuring, intrusion discovery, disaster management and detection
ambient conditions.

Many applications
request the sensor nodes to be small in size and limit the transmission range
to minimize the chances of detection. This results in additional constraints on
other resources such as speed, size of memory, RF bandwidth and lifetime of
sensor node. Therefore, efficient techniques of communication are essential for
enhancing the time period of survival of a sensor node and increasing the
amount of acquiring data and reducing the communication latency of such
wireless devices 2. In spite of having limited communication and computation
capabilities a WSN that contains of thousands or millions of sensor nodes
enhances the different ways through which records can be placed from physical
environment with highly precise knowledge about the data that is to be sensed.
But when it comes to amalgamation of WSN with the existing Internet it comes
with several number of challenges. This dissertation discusses the challenges
and the finest technique to interface wireless sensor network with the IoT to
monitor the environmental parameters is analyzed.



WSN is a setup of
sensor nodes that convey statistics or data between nodes that are not wired or
bind up by electrical conductors. Most of the wireless sensor communication
technology uses radio waves and micro waves in direction to transfer
information between the points which are known as nodes. One another
application field of wireless communication is WSN. WSN is a distributed
system, containing resource or constrained nodes that work in an ad hoc manner
using multi-hope communication 3. WSNs and Internet are integrated as a new
application area called IoT, covering almost every area in current daily life
4. IoT encourages several novel and existing applications such as environment
monitoring, infrastructure management, public safety, health care and
well-being, home and office security, transportation, and military applications
2. The complexity of a WSN 3, which interpret sensing and ID activities
into services using WSN with WSN middleware and access networking. It can use:
(i) different communication platforms such as Wi-Fi, wireless LAN, 3G and 4G.
(ii) different devices which are established on different processors such as
various types of PDA, smart phones and laptops and (iii) all these platforms
and devices being built on different architectures such as centralized,
distributed or peer-to-peer.




WSN is a
collection of huge number of sensor nodes or that combine to form a network
which is used to sense data such as pressure, temperature, sound, tremor,
motion etc. WSNis regard as a revolutionary information collecting methods,
techniques to build the information & communication system which will
greatly improve the reliability & efficiency of infrastructure systems.
Compared with the wired solution, WSNs feature easier deployment and better
flexibility of devices. Due to quick advancements in the technology and bloom
in the field of sensor nodes, WSN will become the main technology for IoT.

A WSN basically structures
less; they are dispersed or unorganized nodes combine together to observe an
area over which they are implanted to get data about the conditions of the surroundings.
Here we are defining dual types of WSNs called as structured WSN &
unstructured WSN. Unorganized WSN has sensor nodes dispersed closely and are
mostly implanted in ad-hoc network field, i.e. nodes are deployed randomly in
the aimed area. In organized wireless sensor network sensor nodes are deployed
in pre-determined locations. These sensor nodes are energy limited and specific
application oriented. Thus, the power management of sensor node is essential
for effective network operations and particular sensor networks are determined by
the following two parameters:


Figure 1.1.Wireless Sensor Network


Data flow patterns

In sensor
networks, each node is an independent data collection device. Periodically
apiece sensor node in the wireless network sends its readings to central workstation.
Sometimes, the chief workstation will be interested in specific information
from nodes in
such case it inserts the query into the network and it is propagated. Then
nodes with the data will reply to the query with the relevant information.


Energy constraints

The sensor nodes
in the networks are battery operated with limited recharge capabilities. The
primary system enactment metric is the energy effectiveness of operation.




The integration
between the Internet and a WSN is classified into three. They are

front end

 (ii) Gateway and

 (iii) TCP/IP.

A WSN is fully
individualistic from the internet (i.e. front end), can only be in touch with
internet hosts and transfer data across it (i.e. gateway), or allow a
reconcilable network layer protocol (TCP/IP).

Its first
resemblance is the Front-End solution. The solutions are the peripheral
Internet hosts and the sensor nodes does not communicate directly with each
other. In fact, the WSN is completely individualistic from the internet, so it
can deploy its self -benefitted group of protocols. All interactions among the
external world and the sensor network will be managed by a centralized device,
such as a base station as shown in Figure 1.2.

The sink node
collects all the transmission throughout the nodes with a WSN, and the sink
node may also give permission to read or write on data gathered to additional outside
objects through commonly used interfaces. In addition, any query coming from
the Internet hosts will be always traversing the base station (B).






end solution for integrating IoT and WSN.


The 2nd
approach is the Gateway solution,
considers the presence of a device (e.g. base station)it is used as an
application layer gateway, having responsibility of interpreting the lower
layer protocols among the networks (e.g. TCP/IP and proprietary) and routing
the information from one point to another, as shown in Figure 1.3. Shows that
the result, Internet hosts and sensor nodes can be capable to address each
other and exchange information without establishing a truly direct connection. this
approach, the WSN is still liberated from the Internet, and all queries still
need to traverse a gateway device. However, sensor nodes can be capable to
provide web service interfaces to external entities while maintaining their
lower layer protocols.




1.3.Gateway (G) solution for integrating IoT
and WSN.


The 3rdapproach,
the TCP/IP solutions approach,
sensor nodes are implementing the TCP/IP stack thus nodes can be considered as
full-fledged elements of the Internet. Any host of the internet can connect directly
with them, and vice-versa. This is the most appropriate technique for
implementing full amalgamation of WSN and IoT. A significance of this
methodology is that sensor nodes are no longer able to use specific WSN

The Internet
enabled nodes behave

i) As a front-end,
efficiently segregating the wireless sensor network sensors from the Internet,

ii) As gateways,
allowing direct data exchange between sensors and the central system.


There are numerous
aspects that need to be taken care of before choosing a certain integration
approach. The main factors are summarized in the succeeding paragraphs:


1. Resilience. WSN directly provides its services to
external entities are quite vulnerable against security attacks. Gateways and
sensor nodes need to be capable to include security mechanisms that increase
their robustness against attacks.


2. Security
of the communication channel. It is necessary to analyze how mechanisms such as TLS could be
cast-off to offer an end-to-end secure channel. In fact, it is likewise
necessary to study the different key exchange mechanisms that would be used.


3. Accountability. For an Internet-enabled WSN, it might
be fascinating to advance a distributed system that is capable to record the
interactions with the users of the system. By store all communications, we
could be capable to recreate security incidents and abnormal situations.


4. Functionality. There might be some applications where
the sensor nodes do not need to be aware of the Internet. Example, WSN whose
tasks are limited to collect information and answer to user queries not
supposed to contact any Internet service without permission.


5. Hardware.
A specially controlled sensor node might
not be capable to be directly connected to the Internet owing to the memory
requirements of the different security mechanisms.

6. Inherent
weaknesses. Internet
empowered sensor devices are susceptible to countless more diverse types of security
attacks, ranging from DoS attacks to exploit attacks.


7. Network
redundancy. Among the several nodes, a sensor node
might provide same ramification while increasing redundancy, but in TCP/IP
network an external node will ask for services to be provided by specific node
through their IP address. It results in development of
specific mechanism in TCP/IP network to overcome from the exceptional
conditions (i.e. unreachable nodes).


8. Protocol
optimizations. Most wireless sensor network definite protocols embrace assured
mechanisms that permit a network to self-heal itself and to enhance its
interior behaviour.


After knowing
about the different integration approaches, it looks like TCP/IP is one of the
efficient way to successfully integrate wireless sensor network with internet.
In term of other solution approaches, like asa Front-End solution; the nodes
can solitary access those services that are implemented in the central system
(server). In fact, it is actually extra perplexing to guarantee the safety of
WSN that make practice of the TCP/IP solution. But for considering the environmental
monitoring Front end solution is the simple, easy and effective way of
integration. For measuring the environmental parameters, the information will
be minimized by the base station. The data which is necessary to monitor only
direct to the Internet.



There had been
many Hollywood films on how the upcoming will look – and the IoT vision comes
close to the Hollywood vision. There is single common theme across both
visions: machines become very powerful as a whole within a highly automated
society. The question of individual privacy and security within this for the
individual becomes additional problematic as the complex chain within which the
security has been created is countless and among the links which is weakest
that defines the summary of safekeeping of the network. We are provided with
IPv6 through which we are capable to connect to billions of data points through
IP addresses that will result in a new world – query is will they can all be
secured to a level that can ensure individual privacy rights and secure the
systems from malicious attacks. In traditional TCP/IP networks, security is
built to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of network
data. It makes the system reliable and protects the system from malicious
attacks which can lead to malfunctioning systems and information disclosure. As
the characteristic of node and application, WSN security is a not only needs
traditional security protection, but also need the special requirements of
trust, security and privacy (TSP) WSNs 4.

Roughly, the
security threats can be categorized as: physical (local) attacks and
non-physical (remote) attacks. Physical attacks are executed by attackers which
force their way into the physically unprotected thing and effort to negotiation
it in different ways 6, 7.



1.5.1. Trust, security and privacy management (TSP)

Trust, security
and privacy in wireless sensor network, completely be determined by the
application environment, the protection needed for integrity, availability,
confidentiality, non-repudiation, and user privacy. It supports system
integrity, reliability by protecting the system from malicious attacks. WSN
requires the nodes to be protected against tampering of nodes, protect the
transmission medium and routing in the network layer 3.TSP logging/ audit
functions may be required to detect attacks.

The Trust,
security and privacy issues in WSN includes authentication of sensor nodes,
encryption of exchanged data, access control etc. The TSP requirements of WSN
includes node security, key management, crypto algorithms, secure routing, and
data aggregation 6.

Types of privacy
threats: Confidentiality

describes the avoidance of revelation of data to unauthorized entities. We want
to achieve confidentiality to prohibit privacy threat and eavesdropping
attacks. Please note that an invader can observe communication patterns of a
user even if confidentiality is provided by the connection, allowing him to
infer private information about the user anyway. This attack is just
complicated when confidentiality is provided, but not fully averted. Authenticity

guarantees that all parties involved in the communication are who they claim
they are. Integrity

Integrity is
violated if a message can actively be altered during transmission without actuality
spotted. If message integrity and authenticity is guaranteed, man-in-the middle
attacks can be averted. Availability

Ensuring the
survivability of services to parties when needed, even during a DoS attack. Authorization

Access to the
resources by an authentic entity. Data Freshness

It makes sure that
no unauthorized node can replay old messages. Similarly recognized as key

All above
mentioned services can be attained by means of some of the cryptographic
mechanisms such as block ciphers, signature algorithms and hash functions and
some non-cryptographic mechanisms, those leads to authorization and other
mentioned security policies implementation aspects.


In constrained environments such as IoT:

So far, the listed
safety fears and goals can be applied to arbitrary networks. We, however, are focusing
on constrained networks, therefore we need to appearance at the additional consequences
that arise in constrained environments. One additional problem is the minor
packet size, which may result in fragmentation of larger packets in security
protocols (e.g., a large key exchange message). This may open new attack
vectors for state enervation DoS attacks 7. Further, the size and numeral of
messages should be minimized to reduce memory requirements and optimize
bandwidth usage, while maintaining high security standards. When reducing or
simplifying a security protocol in direction to minimize energy consumption,
one must also expect losses in the security quality 8. An appropriate
trade-off must be found for apiece distinct environment. Another problem is the
still existing gap between Internet protocols and the IoT, namely 6LoWPAN and
CoAP, due to performance reasons. The differences mentioned can be filled using
protocol interpreters at gateways, but that can lead to major disadvantage if
end-to-end security methods amongst internet host and IoT devices are implanted.
When a message is protected by means of message authentication codes or
encryption or both, the protected fragments of the message become immutable.
Thus, making rewriting not possible for the translators 7.


Figure 1.4 TSP architecture for WSN’s



The initial idea
of IoT was proposed by MIT Auto-ID Labs at the end of 1990’swhich originated
from the requirement of logistics. ITU Internet Reports 20059 indicated
that we are in the direction of an omnipresent network civilization, one in
which networks and networked devices are everywhere. The notion of “Things” in
internet of things has been generalized to ordinary objects at present, and the
interconnection technology is also extended to all networking technologies,
including RFID (Radio Frequency Identification).

1.6.1. Three important
characteristics of IoT.

objects are instrumented.
Define as the customary objects such as chair, food, clothes etc. can be
addressed individually using RFID chip, bar code and many more like that.
terminals are interconnected.
It states that the instrumented physical entities are associated as
autonomic web
services are intelligent.
A widely interrelated network, hire each object participates in the
service stream to mark the pervasive service intelligent. For example, the
sensor nodes of automobile transport network or human transport network be
able to observe the status of lane or the body of driver to acquire
real-time information for guiding driving.

Therefore, Internet of things is a refined wide-ranging
inter disciplinary technology, e.g., surrounding multiple ranges such as
computer science, infrastructures, microelectronics and sensor technology. IoT
is closely-related to the Internet, mobile communication networks and WSN. Comparing
internet of things with WSNs, Internet, omnipresent systems and additional

1.6.2. Purposes
of IoT

Compared with the traditional information net- works, three
new goals of IoT, i.e., more widespread interconnection, extra concentrated statistics
insight, and additional wide-rangingintellectual services. IoT ranges the interconnection
amongst the information equipment’s, such as system and mobile phone, to the
interconnection of all intelligent or non-intelligent physical objects. It has
the succeeding outstanding characteristics:

in the quantity of devices. The quantity of the associated devices will
abruptlyincrease from some billions to over hundreds of billions,
containing a multitude of equipment’s, sensors, actuators, means of
transportation, and devices committed with.
in the kind of networking devices (networking components) might be powered
by the electric power directly or by batteries; the computation and
communiquécapabilitymight be momentouslyunlike, e.g., more or less devices
even might not have at all computational capability.
in the connection. The devices might be associated in a wired or wireless
approach; the communication could be a single hop or multiple hops; the
connection can be strong state routing or statistical weak state routing.

Thus, in such a hefty scale heterogeneous network, we essentially
encounter the challenges of extremely resourceful interconnection of network




When this method
was proposed few goals were set, as follows

1. To Analysis of
Security Methods and some cryptography algorithm.

2. To study of
Network Simulator NS-2

3. To study about
ECSM techniques before implementation in network simulator.

4. Implement ECSM
techniques in NS-2.35.

5. Compare the
Existing security and proposed security approach in WSN.

6. Compute the
result Delay, PDR, Energy, Throughput.



this chapter we discussed about WSN, IoT, Security level, Objectives of IoT.

Chapter 2
discusses about the literature survey i.e. the work that has already been done
in this field.

Chapter 3consist
of the tool overview that has been used for implementing the proposed work.

Chapter 4 discuses
ECSM (proposed work) and implementation.

Chapter 5 includes
the result ad analysis phase, I this we compare the results of the base paper
with the implemented technology.